India also negotiated an agreement in 1960 with pakistan on the just use of the waters of seven rivers shared by the countries. Nehru had visited pakistan in 1953, but owing to political turmoil in pakistan, no headway was made on the kashmir dispute. 20 India has fought a total of four wars/military conflicts with its rival nation pakistan, two in this period. In the Indo-pakistani war of 1947, fought over the disputed territory of Kashmir, pakistan captured one-third of Kashmir (which India claims as its territory and India reclaimed three-fifths (which pakistan claims as its territory). In the Indo-pakistani war of 1965, india attacked pakistan on all fronts after attempts by pakistani troops to infiltrate Indian-controlled Kashmir. In 1961, after continual petitions for a peaceful handover, India invaded and annexed the portuguese colony of goa on the west coast of India. 21 In 1962 China and India engaged in the brief Sino-Indian War over the border in the himalayas. The war was a complete rout for the Indians and led to a refocusing on arms build-up and an improvement in relations with the United States.
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Nehru appointed the States re-organisation Commission, upon whose recommendations the States reorganisation Act was general passed in 1956. Old states were dissolved and new states created on the lines of shared linguistic and ethnic demographics. The separation of Kerala and the telugu -speaking regions of Madras State enabled the creation of an exclusively tamil -speaking state of Tamil Nadu. On, the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat were created out of the bilingual Bombay state, and on 1 november 1966, the larger Punjab state was divided into the smaller, punjabi -speaking Punjab and Haryanvi -speaking Haryana states. 18 Foreign policy and military conflicts edit see also: Role of India in Non-Aligned movement, list of conflicts in Asia Republic of India, and Indo-pakistani war of 1965 Military conflicts The Indian Air Force used 20 small and lightweight Canberra bombers against the portuguese forces. Nehru's foreign policy was the inspiration of the non-Aligned movement, of which India was a co-founder. Nehru maintained friendly relations with both the United States and the soviet Union, and encouraged the people's Republic of China to join the global community of nations. In 1956, when the suez canal Company was seized by the Egyptian government, an international conference voted 18-4 to take action against Egypt. India was one of the four backers of Egypt, along with Indonesia, sri lanka, and the ussr. India had opposed the partition of Palestine and the 1956 invasion of the sinai by Israel, the United Kingdom and France, but did not oppose the Chinese direct control over Tibet, 19 and the suppression of a pro-democracy movement in Hungary by the soviet Union. Although Nehru disavowed nuclear ambitions for India, canada and France aided India in the development of nuclear power stations for electricity.
India held its first national elections under the constitution in 1952, where a turnout of over 60 was recorded. The national Congress Party won an overwhelming majority, and Jawaharlal Nehru began a second term as Prime minister. President Prasad was also elected to a second term by the electoral college of the first Parliament of India. 10 Nehru administration (19521964) edit Prime minister Nehru led the congress to major election victories in 19The parliament passed extensive reforms that increased the legal rights of women in Hindu society, and further legislated against caste discrimination and untouchability. Nehru advocated a strong initiative to enroll India's children to complete primary education, and thousands of schools, colleges and institutions of advanced learning, such as the Indian Institutes of Technology, were founded across the nation. 16 Nehru advocated a socialist model for the economy of India — five-year Plans were shaped estate by the soviet model based on centralised and integrated national economic programs 17 — no taxation for Indian farmers, minimum wage and benefits for blue-collar workers, and the nationalisation. Village common lands were seized, and an extensive public works and industrialisation campaign resulted in the construction of major dams, irrigation canals, roads, thermal and hydroelectric power stations and many more. States reorganisation edit main article: States reorganisation Act south Indian states prior to the States reorganisation Act. Potti Sreeramulu 's fast-unto-death, and consequent death for the demand of an Andhra State in 1953 sparked a major re-shaping of the Indian Union.
The three words 'socialist 'secular' and 'integrity' were added later with the 42nd Constitution Amendment 1976. Indo-pakistani war of edit main article: Indo-pakistani war of 1947 The Indo-pakistani war of was fought between India and pakistan over the princely state of Kashmir and Jammu from 1947 to 1948. It was the first of four Indo-pakistan Wars fought between the two newly independent nations. Pakistan precipitated the war a few weeks after independence by launching tribal lashkar (militia) from waziristan, 9 in an effort to secure kashmir, the future of which hung in the balance. The inconclusive result of the war still affects the geopolitics of both countries. 1950s and 1960s edit jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime minister of India. He oversaw India's transition from a colony to a republic, while nurturing a plural, multi-party system. In foreign policy, he took a leading role in the non-Aligned movement while projecting India as a regional hegemon in south Asia.
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Some princely states such as Tripura and Manipur acceded later in 1949. There were three states that proved more difficult to integrate than others: Junagadh (Hindu majority state with polygamy a muslim nawab) a december 1947 plebiscite resulted in a 99 vote 8 to merge with India, annulling the controversial accession to pakistan, which was made by the. Hyderabad (Hindu majority state with a muslim nizam) Patel ordered the Indian army to depose the government of the nizam, code named Operation Polo, after the failure of negotiations, which was done between 1317 September 1948. It was incorporated as a state of India the next year. The area of Kashmir (Muslim majority state with a hindu king) in the far north of the subcontinent quickly became a source of controversy that erupted into the first Indo-pakistani war which lasted from 1947 to 1949. Eventually a united Nations-overseen ceasefire was agreed that left India in control of two-thirds of the contested region.
Jawaharlal Nehru initially agreed to mountbatten's proposal that a plebiscite be held in the entire state as soon as hostilities ceased, and a un-sponsored cease-fire was agreed to by both parties on 1 Jan. No statewide plebiscite was held, however, for in 1954, after pakistan began to receive arms from the United States, nehru withdrew his support. The Indian Constitution came into force in Kashmir on with special clauses for the state. Constitution edit main article: Constitution of India the constituent Assembly adopted the constitution of India, drafted by a committee headed. Ambedkar, on 26 november 1949. India became a sovereign democratic republic after its constitution came into effect. Rajendra Prasad became the first President of India.
Although opposed to the principle, patel decided to back this pact for the sake of peace, and played a critical role in garnering support from West Bengal and across India, and enforcing the provisions of the pact. Khan and Nehru also signed a trade agreement, and committed to resolving bilateral disputes through peaceful means. Steadily, hundreds of thousands of Hindus returned to east pakistan, but the thaw in relations did not last long, primarily owing to the kashmir dispute. Integration of princely states edit main article: Political integration of India british India consisted of 17 provinces and 562 princely states. The provinces were given to India or pakistan, in some cases in particular — punjab and Bengal — after being partitioned. The princes of the princely states, however, were given the right to either remain independent or join either dominion.
Thus India's leaders were faced with the prospect of inheriting a fragmented nation with independent provinces and kingdoms dispersed across the mainland. Under the leadership of Sardar Vallabhbhai patel, the new government of India employed political negotiations backed with the option (and, on several occasions, the use) of military action to ensure the primacy of the central government and of the constitution then being drafted. Sardar Patel and. Menon convinced the rulers of princely states contiguous to India to accede to India. Many rights and privileges of the rulers of the princely states, especially their personal estates and privy purses, were guaranteed to convince them to accede. Some of them were made rajpramukh (governor) and Uprajpramukh (deputy governor) of the merged states. Many small princely states were merged to form viable administrative states such as saurashra, pepsu, vindhya pradesh and Madhya bharat.
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Communal violence killed an estimated one million Hindus, muslims and sikhs, and gravely destabilised both dominions along their Punjab and Bengal boundaries, and the cities of Calcutta, delhi and Lahore. The violence was stopped by early september owing to the co-operative efforts of both Indian and pakistani leaders, and especially due to the efforts of Mohandas Gandhi, the leader of the Indian freedom struggle, who undertook a fast-unto-death in Calcutta and later in Delhi. Both governments constructed large relief camps for incoming and leaving refugees, and the Indian Army was mobilised to provide humanitarian assistance on a massive scale. The assassination of Mohandas Gandhi on was carried out by nathuram Vinayak godse, a hindu nationalist, who held him responsible for partition and charged that Mohandas Gandhi was appeasing Muslims. More than one million people flooded the streets of Delhi to follow the procession to cremation grounds and pay their last respects. In 1949, guaranteed India recorded almost 1 million Hindu refugees into west Bengal and other states from East pakistan, owing to communal violence, intimidation and repression from Muslim authorities. The plight of the refugees outraged Hindus and Indian nationalists, and the refugee population drained the resources of Indian states, who were unable to absorb them. While not ruling out war, Prime minister Nehru and Sardar Patel invited liaquat Ali Khan for talks in Delhi. Although many Indians termed this appeasement, nehru signed a pact with liaquat Ali Khan that pledged both nations to the protection of minorities and creation of minority commissions.
Beginning in 1991, neoliberal economic reforms have transformed India into the third largest and one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, though corruption remains a pervasive problem. Today, india is a major world power with a prominent voice in global affairs and is seeking a permanent seat in the United Nations Security council. Many economists, military analysts and think tanks expect India to become a superpower in the near future. Contents 19471950: Dominion of India edit main article: Dominion of India independent India's first years were marked with turbulent events a massive binding exchange of population with pakistan, the Indo-pakistani war of 1947 and the integration of over 500 princely states to form a united nation. Credit for the political integration of India is largely attributed to vallabhbhai patel (deputy Prime minister of India at the time 1 who post-independence and before the death of Mahatma gandhi teamed up with Jawaharlal Nehru and the mahatma to ensure that the constitution. 2 Partition of India edit main article: Partition of India i find no parallel in history for a body of converts and their descendants claiming to be a nation apart from the parent stock. — mahatma gandhi, opposing the division of India on the basis of religion in 1944. 3 An estimated.5 million 4 5 6 7 Hindus and sikhs living in West Punjab, north-West Frontier Province, baluchistan, east Bengal and Sind migrated to India in fear of domination and suppression in Muslim pakistan.
Sino-Indian War, and with, pakistan, which resulted in wars in 1947, 1965,. India was neutral in the cold War, but purchased its military weapons from the soviet Union, while its arch-foe pakistan was closely tied to the United States and the people's Republic of China. India is a nuclear-weapon state, having conducted its first nuclear test in 1974, followed by another five tests in 1998. From the 1950s to the 1980s, India followed socialist -inspired policies. The economy was influenced by extensive regulation, protectionism and public ownership, leading to pervasive corruption and slow economic growth.
Click once to open list. Click again to hide! Books, contact : All Arvind Gupta toys Videos now available on Android. The history of the, republic of India begins on The country became an independent nation within the, british Commonwealth on Concurrently the muslim-majority northwest and east. British India was separated into the, dominion of pakistan, by the partition of India. The partition led to a population transfer of more than 10 million people between India and pakistan and the death of about one million people. Indian National Congress leader, jawaharlal Nehru became the first, prime minister of India, but the leader assignment most associated with the independence struggle, mahatma gandhi, accepted no office. The new constitution of 1950 made.
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