Heidegger proposes that our way of being human and the way the world is for us are cast historically through a fundamental ontological questioning. These fundamental ontological categories provide the basis for communication in an age: a horizon of unspoken and seemingly unquestionable background meanings, such as human beings understood unquestioningly as subjects and other entities understood unquestioningly as objects. Because these basic ontological meanings both generate and are regenerated in everyday interactions, the locus of our way of being in a historical epoch is the communicative event of language in use. 17 For heidegger, however, communication in the first place is not among human beings, but language itself shapes up in response to questioning (the inexhaustible meaning of) being. 20 even the focus of traditional ontology on the 'whatness' or quidditas of beings in their substantial, standing presence can be shifted to pose the question of the 'whoness' of human being itself. 21 Ontology and language edit some philosophers suggest that the question of "What is?" is (at least in part) an issue of usage rather than a question about facts. 22 This perspective is conveyed by an analogy made by donald davidson : Suppose a person refers to a 'cup' as a 'chair' and makes some comments pertinent to a cup, but uses the word 'chair' consistently throughout instead of 'cup'.
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According to mead, "we do not assume there is a self to begin with. Self is not presupposed as a stuff out of which the world arises. Rather, the self arises in the world". 17 18 The cartesian Other was also used by sigmund Freud, who saw the superego as an abstract regulatory force, and Émile durkheim who viewed bar this as a psychologically manifested entity which represented God in society at large. Citation needed body and environment, questioning the meaning of being edit Schools of subjectivism, objectivism and relativism existed at various times writing in the 20th century, and the postmodernists and body philosophers tried to reframe all these questions in terms of bodies taking some specific action. This relied to a great degree on insights derived from scientific research into animals taking instinctive action in natural and artificial settings—as studied by biology, ecology, 19 and cognitive science. Citation needed The processes by which bodies related to environments became of great concern, and the idea of being itself became difficult to really define. What did people mean when they said "A is b "A must be b "A was B"? Some linguists advocated dropping the verb "to be" from the English language, leaving " E Prime supposedly less prone to bad abstractions. Others, mostly philosophers, tried to dig into the word and its usage. Martin heidegger distinguished human being as existence from the being of things in the world.
This approach avoids the usual problems of a great divide being posited between the modern and book the pre-modern. From a philosophical distinction concerning different formations of being, the concept then provides a way of translating into practical understandings concerning how humans might design cities and communities that live creatively across different ontological formations, for example cities that are not completely dominated by modern. Here the work of Tony Fry is important. 16 Ontological and epistemological certainty edit rené descartes, with je pense donc je suis or cogito ergo sum or "I think, therefore i am argued that "the self" is something that we can know exists with epistemological certainty. Descartes argued further that this knowledge could lead to a proof of the certainty of the existence of God, using the ontological argument that had been formulated first by Anselm of Canterbury. Citation needed certainty about the existence of "the self" and "the other however, came under increasing criticism in the 20th century. Sociological theorists, most notably george herbert mead and Erving Goffman, saw the cartesian Other as a "Generalized Other the imaginary audience that individuals use when thinking about the self.
Its being is borrowed unlike the necessary existent, which is self-subsisting and is impossible for it not. As for the impossible, it necessarily does not exist, and the affirmation of its being is a contradiction. 14 Other ontological topics edit Ontological formations edit The concept of 'ontological formations' refers to formations of social relations understood as dominant ways of living. Temporal, spatial, corporeal, epistemological and performative relations are taken to be central to understanding a dominant formation. That is, a particular ontological formation is based on how ontological categories of time, space, embodiment, knowing and performing are lived—objectively and subjectively. Different ontological formations include the customary (including the tribal the traditional, the modern and the postmodern. The concept was first introduced by paul James' Globalism, nationalism, Tribalism 15 together with a series of writers including Damian Grenfell and Manfred Steger. In the engaged theory approach, ontological formations are seen as layered and intersecting rather than singular formations. They are 'formations of being'.
In general, Plato presumes that all nouns (e.g., 'beauty refer to real entities, whether sensible bodies or insensible forms. Hence, in The sophist Plato argues that being is a form in which all existent things participate and which they have in common (though it is unclear whether 'being' is intended in the sense of existence, copula, or identity and argues, against Parmenides, that Forms. Citation needed In his Categories, aristotle identifies ten possible kinds of things that may be the subject or the predicate of a proposition. For Aristotle there are four different ontological dimensions: citation needed according to the various categories or ways of addressing a being as such according to its truth or falsity (e.g. Fake gold, counterfeit money) whether it exists in and of itself or simply 'comes along' by accident according to its potency, movement (energy) or finished presence ( Metaphysics book theta ). According to avicenna, and in an interpretation of Greek aristotelian and Platonist ontological doctrines in medieval metaphysics, being is either necessary, contingent qua possible, or impossible. Necessary being is that which cannot but be, since its non-being entails a contradiction. Contingent qua possible being is neither necessary nor impossible for it to be or not. It is ontologically neutral, and is brought from potential existing into actual existence by way of a cause that is external to its essence.
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This thesis originated in the summary hellenic world, stated in two different ways by Anaxagoras and by leucippus. The first theory dealt with "seeds" (which Aristotle referred to as "homeomeries of the various substances. The second was the atomistic theory, 11 which dealt with reality as based on the vacuum, the atoms and their intrinsic movement. Citation needed The materialist atomism proposed by leucippus was indeterminist, but then developed by democritus in a deterministic way. It was later (4th century bc) that the original atomism was taken again as indeterministic by Epicurus.
He confirmed the reality as composed of an infinity of indivisible, unchangeable corpuscles or papers atoms ( atomon, lit. 'uncuttable but he gives weight to characterize atoms while for leucippus they are characterized by a "figure an "order" and a "position" in the cosmos. 12 They are, besides, creating the whole with the intrinsic movement in the vacuum, producing the diverse flux of being. Their movement is influenced by the parenklisis ( Lucretius names it clinamen ) and that is determined by the chance. These ideas foreshadowed our understanding of traditional physics until the nature of atoms was discovered in the 20th century. 13 Plato edit Plato developed this distinction between true reality and illusion, in arguing that what is real are eternal and unchanging Forms or Ideas (a precursor to universals of which things experienced in sensation are at best merely copies, and real only.
Parmenides and monism edit parmenides was among the first in the Greek tradition to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of existence. In his prologue or proem he describes two views of existence ; initially that nothing comes from nothing, and therefore existence is eternal. Consequently, our opinions about truth must often be false and deceitful. Most of western philosophy — including the fundamental concepts of falsifiability — have emerged from this view. This posits that existence is what may be conceived of by thought, created, or possessed. Hence, there may be neither void nor vacuum; and true reality neither may come into being nor vanish from existence.
Rather, the entirety of creation is eternal, uniform, and immutable, though not infinite (he characterized its shape as that of a perfect sphere). Parmenides thus posits that change, as perceived in everyday experience, is illusory. Everything that may be apprehended is but one part of a single entity. This idea somewhat anticipates the modern concept of an ultimate grand unification theory that finally describes all of existence in terms of one inter-related sub-atomic reality which applies to everything. Citation needed Ontological pluralism edit main article: Ontological pluralism The opposite of eleatic monism is the pluralistic conception of being. In the 5th century bc, anaxagoras and leucippus replaced 10 the reality of being (unique and unchanging) with that of Becoming and therefore by a more fundamental and elementary ontic plurality.
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Can one give an account of what it means to say that a physical object exists? Can one give an account of what it means to say that a non-physical entity exists? What constitutes the entry identity of an object? When does an object go out of existence, as opposed to merely changing? Do beings exist other than in the modes of objectivity and subjectivity,. Is the subject/object split of modern philosophy inevitable? Concepts edit Essential ontological dichotomies include: citation needed types edit Philosophers can classify ontologies in various ways, using criteria such as the degree of abstraction and field of application: 8 Upper ontology writings : concepts supporting development of an ontology, meta-ontology domain ontology : concepts relevant. Citation needed Ontology is an aspect of the samkhya school of philosophy from the first millennium bce. 9 The concept of Guna which describes the three properties ( sattva, rajas and tamas ) present in differing proportions in all existing things, is a notable concept of this school.
Is existence a genus or general class that is simply divided pink up by specific differences? Which entities, if any, are fundamental? Are all entities objects? How do the properties of an object relate to the object itself? Do physical properties actually exist? What features are the essential, as opposed to merely accidental attributes of a given object? How many levels of existence or ontological levels are there? And what constitutes a "level"? What is a physical object?
an entity, refers to a collection of mental events experienced by a person ; society refers to a collection of persons with some shared characteristics, and geometry refers to a collection of specific kinds of intellectual. 5 need"tion to verify between these poles of realism and nominalism stand a variety of other positions. Some fundamental questions edit Principal questions of ontology include: citation needed "What can be said to exist?" "What is a thing?" 6 "Into what categories, if any, can we sort existing things?" "What are the meanings of being?" "What are the various modes of being. One common approach involves dividing the extant subjects and predicates into groups called categories. Citation needed such lists of categories differ widely from one another, and it is through the co-ordination of different categorical schemes that ontology relates to such fields as library science and artificial intelligence. Such an understanding of ontological categories, however, is merely taxonomic, classificatory. Aristotle's categories are the ways in which a being may be addressed simply as a being, such as: 7 what it is (its 'whatness quiddity, haecceity or essence) how it is (its 'howness' or qualitativeness) how much it is (quantitativeness) where it is, its relatedness. What does it mean for a being to be? Is existence a property?
"being; that which is which is the present participle of the verb εμί, eimí,. "to be, i am and -λογία, -logia,. "logical discourse see classical compounds for this type of word formation. 2 3 While the etymology is Greek, the oldest extant record of the word itself, the new Latin form ontologia, appeared in 1606 in the work Ogdoas Scholastica by apple jacob Lorhard ( Lorhardus ) and in 1613 in the lexicon philosophicum by rudolf Göckel (. The first occurrence in English of ontology as recorded by the oed ( Oxford English Dictionary, online edition, 2008) came in a work by gideon Harvey (1636/71702 Archelogia philosophica nova; or, new principles of Philosophy. Containing Philosophy in general, metaphysicks or Ontology, dynamilogy or a discourse of Power, religio philosophi or Natural Theology, physicks or Natural philosophy, london, Thomson, 1663. The word was first used in its Latin form by philosophers based on the latin roots, which themselves are based on the Greek. Leibniz is the only one of the great philosophers of the 17th century to have used the term ontology. 4 overview edit some philosophers, notably in the traditions of the Platonic school, contend that all nouns (including abstract nouns ) refer to existent entities.
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This article is about ontology in philosophy. For the concept in information science and computing, see. Not to be confused with, oncology, odontology, ontogeny, or, deontology. Parmenides was among the first to propose an ontological characterization of the fundamental nature of reality. Ontology is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations. Traditionally listed as a part of the major branch of philosophy known as metaphysics, ontology often deals with questions concerning what entities biography exist or may be said to exist and how such entities may be grouped, related within a hierarchy, and subdivided according to similarities. Contents, etymology edit, the compound word ontology combines onto -, from the, greek ν, on ( gen.