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The grandson of Mary, the holy roman Emperor, Charles v of Habsburg entered into conflict with Francis i of France. 2 They both wanted the duchy of Burgundy as well as the duchy of Milan. This first phase was interrupted by the French Wars of Religion and it was not decisive for the French monarchy. After his defeat at pavia in 1526, Francis i kept Burgundy but renounced in perpetuity, his suzerainty over the county of Flanders. The burgundian Netherlands which Emperor Charles V had inherited, had hitherto been composed partially of French and partially of German territories. By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549, they became a separate political entity. Meanwhile, henry ii of France consolidated the frontiers of the French kingdom by the occupation in 1552, of the towns of Metz, toul and Verdun which became the province of the Three bishoprics and the re-taking of Calais from the queen of England (1558).

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They had two sons but a new series of conflicts, known as the hundred years' war, was provoked by the claim of Edward iii of England, grandson of Philip iv through Edward's orwell mother. Edward's aim was to supplant Philip. French armies suffered heavy defeats at Crécy (1346) and poitiers (1356). Later, a third serious defeat was suffered at Agincourt (1415). Having temporarily lost territory as a result of the Treaty of Brétigny, the kingdom was again divided by the Treaty of tours (1420). But a new spirit was born in joan of Arc who obliged the English king to raise the siege of Orléans (1429). Having been crowned at reims, Charles vii returned to paris and finally established his authority in the south West, that is to say aquitaine, taking Bordeaux and bayonne (1453) from the English king. The early modern period (14921789 conflicts with the habsburgs of Spain and Austria edit Integration of the last great feudal domains edit On the one hand, the succession of the duchy of Burgundy and on the other, the desire to gain a foothold in Italy. On the death of the last duke of Burgundy, charles the bold, his possessions were divided. His daughter, mary of Burgundy inherited the burgundian Netherlands and the burgundian part of the Franche-comté. Louis xi took back the duchy of Burgundy proper and Picardy (1482).

He progressively attracted the friend hostility of the rest of the group of the royal princes and was ousted. France in 1328 With a surprise attack in 1418, he seized Paris, forcing the heir to the throne, the future Charles vii, to flee to bourges. Similarly, counts of the very rich county of Flanders (at this stage, they were the dukes of Burgundy) used their position as top rank peers of France to establish a powerful state. Their policy was facilitated by the fragmentation of power in France and in Germany, at the end of the middle Ages. The duchy of Burgundy's holdings in the netherlands were the precursor of the modern Belgium. France in the late 15th century however, the kings of England remained dukes of Aquitaine. When Philip iv died, his nephew, Philip I count of Valois mounted the throne of France in the end, as Philip. Philip iv had married jean of Champagne, who brought Champagne with her into the royal domain (1284).

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Thanks to the troubles of the end of the mediaeval period, languedoc was to obtain the establishment of its own institutions: a parliament (which was a sovereign court of justice) and plan États, that is States: assembly which voted on taxes and which decided on communal. The cumulative effect of these conquests was to prompt the kings to appoint their younger sons to territories: the apanages or privileges. This policy would allow the kings to progressively impose royal authority on the provinces, since in practice, the apanages would return without difficulty, to the crown whether by inheritance or by confiscation. This happened for example, in poitou, in 1271 and Anjou, in 1481. These were two provinces taken by conquest from the kings of England by Phillip Augustus and louis viii. Difficulties of the late with medieval period edit France after 1360 Occasionally, the apanage policy weakened the royal power. When the French king, Charles vi, was in conflict with his brother, louis of Orléans, their cousin, jean Sans peur, duke of Burgundy, tried to impose himself on the government through a series of violent strikes.

The king of France, phillip Augustus was able to take advantage of this by taking Normandy from him by his capture of the fortress of the Château gaillard, downstream from Paris (1204). The conquest of that province was vital as it increased the revenues of the French Crown substantially. The conquest of south feudal territories : auvergne and Languedoc edit Philip Augustus was in fact the first king of whom the authority extended beyond the Île de France. The extent of his field of action and its effectiveness of his authority were enhanced. The king subdued notably, the county of Vermandois, touraine and the key parts of the county of auvergne. The last was entrusted to several lords of the royal entourage before being formally reattached to the royal domain in 1531. The success of Philip Augustus was confirmed by his victory over the holy roman Emperor at bouvines in 1214. Shortly afterwards, The king of France louis viii the lion exploited the Albigensian Crusade against the cathars of the midi to impose his authority on the county of toulouse (1229). This new conquest was to become the province of Languedoc and until The revolution, comprised essentially eight of the modern French départments in the midi.

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That was not so in the case of his son Charles viii who not only undertook an expedition to naples which gave no result but beforehand, abandoned several of his father's conquests; Artois, Franche-comté and roussillon, to his eventual competitors. Consolidation of royal power when faced with the kings of England edit The kingdom of France in 987 In 987, the carolingians were ousted in France by the election of Hugues Capet who imposed his dynasty. The royal domain of the first Capetians was initially limited to a part of the Île-de-France, between Paris and Orléans, which were its principal towns. Elsewhere, it was the great lords who exercised their authority, notably the six lay peers of France : the dukes of Aquitaine, of Burgundy and of Normandy, besides the counts of Champagne, of Flanders and of toulouse. The first objective of the capetian kings was the consolidation of their regional authority, which they tried to do in the course of the 11th and 12th centuries. The principal enlargement of the royal domain in the course of that period was the purchase of the viscounty of bourges in 1101 which was to become the duchy of Berry.

The conquest of Plantagenet territories edit The struggle against the norman and Angevin kings of England was the opportunity for the kings of France to extend their authority. They had, it is true, to face up to the formidable challenge with which they were presented. The duke of Normandy william the conqueror became king of England in 1066 through his victory at Hastings over the saxons. On the extinction of his male line of descent, his heir was the duke of Anjou, henry Plantagenet, grandson by his mother of Henry i of England. Two months before he ascended to the English throne, as Henry ii, he married Eleanor, duchess of Aquitaine, the richest heiress in the French kingdom and ex-wife of the king of France. The kings of France nevertheless, held some trump cards: the prestige and prerogatives of their position, the dissent at the heart of the Plantagenet family and the difficulty the latter had in exacting obedience guttenberg in the south-West. John Lackland, son of Henry ii, caused confusion among his vassals by his irregular and violent behaviour.

Their common frontier at that time, was placed approximately along the saône and the Rhône. On the one side, the first Germanic monarchy would weaken itself in trying to re-establish the carolingian Empire without having sufficient means. On the other hand, the French monarchy would from a modest base, slowly establish itself, ultimately to take the leading role in Western Europe. Expansion of France towards the Alps edit The holy roman Empire, which is represented in the modern world by germany, sank into political anarchy during the 13th century. This opened the way to all sorts of encroachment.


Philip iv joined the town of lyon to his realm again (1312). It was a former capital of the gauls and an important crossroads in European commerce. The unhappy Phillip vi bought the dauphiné on, by the treaty of Romans. His grandson, the brother of Charles v, louis was invested as duke of Anjou. He was further adopted as heir by the countess of Provence and queen of Sicily, joan. He accomplished his conquest of Provence. His grandson, king René could not however, maintain his position in Italy and transferred his possessions to the king of France, louis XI: Anjou in France and Provence in the holy roman Empire (1481). Louis xi had the good sense not to adopt René's claims in Italy.

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Contents geographical context edit modern Metropolitan France lies to estate a large extent, within clear limits of physical geography. Roughly half of its margin lies on sea coasts. In the south-west, its border lies among the peaks of the pyrenees mountain range. Similarly, in the south-east it lies in part of the Alps. In the east it follows one or another of the jura ranges until it reaches the river Rhine, which it follows downstream. The remaining section, in the north-east, between the Rhine and the north sea, is provided with the least clear natural definition. The middle Ages (8431492 the unification of the kingdom edit The boundaries between the kingdom of France and the holy roman Empire edit The birth of France and Germany dates edit France in the carolingian Empire from 843 to 888 The Treaty of Verdun of 843. The arrangement was seen as a temporary sharing out of the inheritance between the heirs of Charlemagne. It set a seal to the creation of the borders of two states each of which would have its own development.

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On the whole, it remained stable from 1697 to 1789 when it became vague, following no particular line. It was re-established, more or less on its old line in 1815, by the congress of vienna. France did lose some places such as Landau and saarlouis. These strategic losses and the construction of a powerful German state may be seen as giving rise to later diplomatic and military events. But even after the Armistice of 1918, france was unable to make new territorial gains towards the north-east, into the saarland. Subsequently in the 19th century, there were teresa only a few developments. The duchy of savoy and the county of Nice were definitively re-attached to France, by plebiscite in 1860. Alsace-lorraine was annexed by germany in 1871 but became French again in 1918. 1 Other alterations were made temporarily, by the occupying power, during the period of World War.

with, louis xii led finally to the effective annexation in 1532, of her duchy which was already within the ambit of the French Kingdom but which had hitherto firmly maintained its distinct existence. From 1635 to 1748, richelieu and, louis xiv undertook an expansion of the frontiers of the kingdom towards the north and towards the Rhine. Their aim was to check the aspiration of the austrian royal house towards its own predominance in Europe. French Flanders (1526) had brought the frontier dangerously close to the. Alsace, artois and Franche-comté were annexed between 16The duchy of Lorraine remained some time an enclave in the French kingdom before it too was incorporated in 1766. This and the purchase of Corsica in 1768 brought the territory of the kingdom into a consolidated block. During the period of the French revolution and First Empire, france expanded temporarily on the left bank of the Rhine. The frontier in the north east lost its definition.

Capetians, were too much occupied with imposing their authority in their own realm to be expansionist. They deftly exploited dissent among their turbulent vassals, applying pressure on them and on the Church and towns. The great conflicts with the kings of England were important occasions for asserting royal power. The 13th century re-annexations. Normandy and of, languedoc to the French kingdom were two important stages in the unification of the kingdom. France soon lost the, county of Barcelona (. Catalonia from the end of the 9th century. The crossing beyond Rhone, which for a long time remained the frontier, did not begin until the 14th century, with the purchase of the.

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Home page, genius Maths - one page wonders revision Resource. Booster Maths Sessions, cookie information. Dynamic map of the frontiers of France from 985 to 1947. This article describes the process guaranteed by which the territorial extent of metropolitan France came to be as it is since 1947. The territory of the French State is spread throughout the world. Metropolitan France is that part which is in Europe. Occidental France, which arose from the, treaty of Verdun of 843, remained stable for many years. The first kings, the.


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