Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms and aids in " head retention 64 65 the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative. 66 67 yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour.
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After malting, barley is milled, which finally removes the hull, breaking it into large pieces. These pieces remain with the grain during the mash, and act as a filter bed during lautering, when sweet wort is separated from insoluble grain material. Other malted and unmalted mitigation grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. Some brewers have produced gluten-free beer, made with sorghum with no barley malt, for those who cannot consume gluten -containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye. 58 Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops. 59 The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops". The first historical mention of the use of hops in beer was from 822 ad in monastery rules written by Adalhard dad the Elder, also known as Adalard of Corbie, 36 60 though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer. 36 60 Before the thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer was flavoured with other plants; for instance, grains of paradise or alehoof. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used. 61 Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish heather Ales company 62 and Cervoise lancelot by the French Brasserie-lancelot company, 63 use plants other than hops for flavouring.
54 The waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation. 55 The starch source, termed as the " mash ingredients in a beer provides the fermentable material and is pdf a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars. 56 Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers. 57 nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because its fibrous hull remains attached to the grain during threshing.
47 When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other thesis sorts of beer. 48 Ingredients The basic ingredients of beer are water; a starch source, such as malted barley, able to be saccharified (converted to sugars) then fermented (converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide a brewer's yeast to produce the fermentation; and a flavouring such as hops. 49 A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary starch source, such as maize (corn rice or sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley. 50 Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, and potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others. 51 The amount of each resumes starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill. Water is the main ingredient of beer, accounting for 93 of its weight. 52 Though water itself is, ideally, flavorless, its level of dissolved minerals, specifically, bicarbonate ion, does influence beer's finished taste. 53 due to the mineral properties of each region 's water, specific areas were originally the sole producers of certain types of beer, each identifiable by regional characteristics. 54 Regional geology accords that Dublin 's hard water is well-suited to making stout, such as guinness, while the Plzeň region 's soft water is ideal for brewing Pilsner ( pale lager such as Pilsner Urquell.
In addition to producing ethanol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear. 46 During fermentation most of the carbon dioxide is allowed to escape through a trap and the beer is left with carbonation of only about one atmosphere of pressure. The carbonation is often increased either by transferring the beer to a pressure vessel such as a keg and introducing pressurized carbon dioxide, or by transferring it before the fermentation is finished so that carbon dioxide pressure builds up inside the container as the fermentation. Sometimes the beer is put unfiltered (so it still contains yeast) into bottles with some added sugar, which then produces the desired amount of carbon dioxide inside the bottle. 7 Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity.
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Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing. 43 The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a kettle, or "copper" (so called because these vessels were traditionally made from copper 44 and resume boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma.
Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer. 45 After boiling, the hopped wort is now cooled, ready for the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring purpose and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer.
Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countries, which from the late 19th century largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only. However, the uk government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by australia in 1972 and the us in 1978, allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby. 39 The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic drink known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast. The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is known as " mashing ". Hot water (known as "liquor" in brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts (known as " grist in a mash tun. 40 The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours, 41 during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains.
The grains are now washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist. 42 Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge, collecting the original wort and the sparge water together. However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. This process is known as second (and third) runnings.
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35 beer produced before the Industrial revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, literature although by the 7th century ad, beer was also being produced and sold by european monasteries. During the Industrial revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century. 36 The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results. As of 2007, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries., more than 133 billion litres (35 billion gallons the equivalent of a cube 510 metres. In 2010, China's beer consumption hit 450 million hectolitres (45 billion litres or nearly twice that of the United States, but only 5 per cent sold were premium draught beers, compared with 50 per cent in France and Germany. 38 Brewing main article: Brewing A 16th-century brewery The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home.
23 24 Almost any substance containing sugar can naturally undergo alcoholic fermentation. It is likely that many cultures, on observing that a sweet liquid could be obtained from a source of starch, independently invented beer. Bread and beer increased prosperity to a level that allowed time for development of other technologies and contributed to the building of civilizations. Xenophon noted that during his travels, beer was being produced in Armenia. 29 beer was spread through Europe by germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 bc, 30 and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale. 31 The product that the early europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early european beers might contain imprisonment fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs. 32 What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition, first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a carolingian Abbot 33 and again in 1067 by abbess Hildegard of Bingen. 34 In 1516, william iv, duke of bavaria, adopted the reinheitsgebot (purity law perhaps the oldest food-quality regulation still in use in the 21st century, according to which the only allowed ingredients of beer are water, hops and barley- malt.
even further — to about 10,000 bc, when cereal was first farmed. 15 beer is recorded in the written history of ancient Iraq and ancient Egypt, 16 and archaeologists speculate that beer was instrumental in the formation of civilizations. 17 Approximately 5000 years ago, workers in the city of Uruk (modern day iraq) were paid by their employers in beer. 18 During the building of the Great Pyramids in giza, egypt, each worker got a daily ration of four to five litres of beer, which served as both nutrition and refreshment that was crucial to the pyramids' construction. 19 Some of the earliest Sumerian writings contain references to beer; examples include a prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The hymn to ninkasi 20 which served as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer. Day and night make merry ) to gilgamesh, recorded in the Epic of Gilgamesh, by the ale-wife siduri may, at least in part, have referred to the consumption of beer. 21 The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, syria, show that beer was produced in the city in 2500. 22 A fermented drink using rice and fruit was made in China around 7000. Unlike sake, mold was not used to saccharify the rice (amylolytic fermentation the rice was probably prepared for fermentation by chewing or malting.
7 Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours, 8 and "The hymn to ninkasi a prayer to the mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer. 9 10 beer is distributed in bottles and cans and is also commonly available on draught, particularly in pubs and bars. The brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several professional dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries. The strength of modern beer is usually around 4 to 6 alcohol by volume (abv although it may vary between.5 and 20, with some breweries creating examples of 40 abv and above. 11 beer forms part of the culture of many nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games. Contents History main article: History of beer beer is one of the world's oldest prepared drinks. There is some evidence that beer was produced at Göbekli tepe during the Pre-pottery neolithic (around 85 BC).
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This article is about the alcoholic drink. For other shredder uses, see. François Jaques: peasants Enjoying beer at Pub in Fribourg (Switzerland, 1923 beer is one of the oldest 1 2 3 and most widely consumed 4 alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea. 5, beer is brewed from cereal grains —most commonly from malted barley, though wheat, maize (corn and rice are also used. During the brewing process, fermentation of the starch sugars in the wort produces ethanol and carbonation in the resulting beer. 6, most modern beer is brewed with hops, which add bitterness and other flavours and act as a natural preservative and stabilizing agent. Other flavouring agents such as gruit, herbs, or fruits may be included or used instead of hops. In commercial brewing, the natural carbonation effect is often removed during processing and replaced with forced carbonation.