AgNO3 nacl - agCl nano3 4 Balance the equation. Once you have written the equation and have all of the products and reactants you need to make sure everything is balanced. An equation is balanced only when you have the same number of atoms of every element present on both sides. 14 For example: AgNO3 nacl - agCl nano3 count the number of atoms on each side: 1 Ag left, 1 Ag right; 1 N left, 1 N right; 3 O left, 3 O right; 1 na left, 1 na right; 1 Cl left,. 5 Note the states of matter. Its important to indicate the states of matter for both the reactants and the products. There is a designated letter for each state of matter which goes in parentheses. Put this information after the formula of the substance it is describing.
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Once you have identified all of the ions and their charges, rearrange them so that the first cation is now paired quality with the second anion, and the second cation is now paired with the first anion. Remember the equation: ab cd. 12 Remember to balance the charges when forming new compounds. For example: AgNO3 nacl? Ag1 now pairs with Cl1- to form AgCl. Na1 now pairs with NO31- to form nano3. 3 Write the full equation. After writing the products that will form in the equation, you can write the whole equation with both products and reactants. Keep the reactants on the left side of the equation and write the new products on the right side with a plus sign between them. 13 For example: AgNO3 nacl -?
Part 3 Determining the Products given reactants 1 Identify all of the cations and anions in the reactants. In a literature basic double replacement equation you will have 2 cations and 2 anions. The general equation takes the form of ab cd ad cb, where a and c are cations and b and d are anions. You also want to determine the charges of each ion. 11 For example: AgNO3 nacl? The cations are Ag1 and Na1. The anions are no31- and Cl1. 2 Switch the ions to build the products.
Calcium Nitride: Symbol for calcium is mini ca and symbol of nitrogen. Ca is a group 2 element and has a charge. Nitrogen is a group 15 element and has a charge. To balance this, you need 3 atoms of calcium (6) and 2 atoms of nitrogen (6- ca3N2. Mercury (II) Phosphate: Symbol for Mercury is Hg and phosphate is the polyatomic ion PO4. Mercury has a 2 charge as indicated by the roman numeral ii next. Phosphate has a 3- charge. In order to balance them, you will need 3 atoms of mercury (6) and 2 molecules of phosphate (6- hg3(PO4)2.
10 For example: Lithium Oxide. Lithium is a group 1 element and has a 1 charge. Oxygen is a group 16 element and has a 2- charge. In order to balance the 2- charge of the oxygen, you need 2 atoms of lithium; therefore, the chemical formula of lithium oxide is Li2O. 5 Practice with some examples. The best way to learn formula writing is to practice with lots of examples. Use examples in your chemistry book or look for practice sets online. Do as many as you can until you feel comfortable writing chemical formulas.
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3 Determine the valence charge of each temp element. The valence charge can be determined by looking at the position of the element on the periodic table. There are a few rules to keep in mind that help you identify the charges: 9 All group 1 elements. All group 2 elements are. Transition elements will have roman numerals in parentheses to indicate their charge. Silver is 1, zinc is 2, and aluminum. Group 17 elements are.
Group 16 elements are. Group 15 elements are. Remember, when working with polyatomic ions, use the charge of the complete polyatomic ion, rather than the individual ions. 4 Balance the positive and negative charges of the ions. Once you have identified the charge of each element (or polyatomic ion you will use these charges to determine the number of atoms present of each element. You want the charge of the compound to equal zero so you will add atoms to balance the charges.
Unlike covalent compounds, Greek prefixes are not used to indicate the number of atoms of each element. You have to balance the charges of the elements to determine the atoms. For example: Lithium oxide is Li2O. 2 Recognize polyatomic ions. Sometimes the cation or anion is a polyatomic ion.
These are molecules that have two or more atoms with ionic groups. Theres no good trick to remembering these, you just need to memorize them. 8 There are only 3 cation polyatomic ions and they are ammonium (NH4 hydronium (H3 and mercury(I) (Hg22). They all have a 1 charge (though, technically, 2 mercury atoms are bonded together, which creates a 2 charge, with each mercury cation containing a 1 charge). The rest of the polyatomic ions have negative charges ranging from -1 to -4. Some common ones are carbonate (CO32- sulfate (SO42- nitrate (NO3- and chromate (CrO42-).
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When first learning chemistry, there is a lot of memorization involved. It is kind of like learning a new language. The more examples you practice with, dates the easier it will be to decipher chemical formulas in the future and learn the language of chemistry. Sulfur dioxide: SO2 Carbon tetrabromide: CBr4 Diphosphorus pentoxide: P2O5 Part 2 Writing Chemical Formulas of Ionic Compounds 1 Identify the chemical symbols for the cations and anions. All chemicals have what you can call a first and last name. The first name is the cation (positive ion) while the last name is the anion salon (negative ion). Cations are written as the element name while anions are the element name ending with the suffix ide. 7 The chemical symbol for each element can be found on the periodic table.
The chemical symbol for fluorine. 5, add the number of atoms present as a subscript. As you did with the first element, identify the number of atoms present in the second motivational element by reading the prefix. Using this prefix, write the number of atoms as a subscript to the right of the chemical symbol. For example: Hexafluoride has a prefix of hexa- which means 6; therefore, there are 6 atoms of fluorine present. Write hexafluoride. The final chemical formula for dinitrogen hexafluoride is N2F6. 6, practice with some examples.
for example: Dinitrogen has a the prefix di- which means 2; therefore, there are 2 atoms of nitrogen present. Write dinitrogen. 4, write the chemical symbol for the second element. The second element is the last name of the compound and will follow the first element. For covalent compounds, the element name will have a suffix of -ide instead of the normal ending of the element. 5, for example: Dinitrogen hexafluoride. The second element is fluorine. Simply replace the ide ending with the actual element name.
2, below are the prefixes for 1-10: 1: Mono- 2: di- 3: Tri- 4: Tetra- 5: Penta- 6: Hexa- 7: Hepta- 8: Octa- 9: Nona- 10: Deca-. Write the chemical symbol for the first element. When a compound has been written out, you must identify the elements and know their chemical symbols. The first element written is first name of the compound. Use the periodic table to find the chemical symbol for the element. 3, for example: Dinitrogen revelation hexafluoride. The first element is nitrogen and the chemical symbol for nitrogen. 3, add the number of atoms as a subscript.
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