The "43rd Elizabeth in 1601 a new poor Law was introduced, now termed as the "Old poor Law" after the "Poor Law Amendment Act" was passed in 1834. The poor Law in 1601 often went under the guise of the "43rd Elizabeth" commemorating queen Elizabeth i as she had enacted this new law in her 43rd year of ruling. The "43rd Elizabeth" was established to deal with the dilemma of imposing and collecting monetary and other relief for the poor. Which had risen in bearing through many reasons, two of the hugest being the soar in fertility rates and decrease in death rates, creating a larger population from three million to four. And the other being a frightening level of terrible harvests particularly spread throughout the 1590's; nearer to the point the law was passed. It was because of these factors that Elizabeth had to commence an act of finality.
Crime and punishment elizabethan era essay
It was then in 1572 that the very first mandatory local poor law tax was enforced, creating the alleviation of longhand poverty a much more local responsibility. Then just four years later an idea for a deterrent workhouse was first talked of, but nothing of the sort came about until the new poor Law was passed in 1834. Creating the picture of ghastliness we know of today from the victorian era, including starvation beyond any acceptable level, segregation and other inhuman tortures. Later in 1597 the jp's were once more gathered together with a new slice of poor law legislation (for both England and Wales called "Act for the relief of the poor to watch carefully over the new posts of "Overseers of the poor" -. The overseers of the poor worked for each Parish. And would be elected each Easter as a pair. Always unpaid and nearly always unwilling to work (because among they weren't being paid for a job forced onto them) - so their actions were seen over by the justice of the peaces'. Their jobs would be to supervise the parish-poorhouse; figure out how much money would be needed for the poor relief, which they would then commence to collect from property owners - raising and lowering the poor Rate according to how much was needed; as well. This was the beginning of a new age for poorer peasants as it gave us the very first complete structure for the relief of our poor. Later, once again, looked over and edited by the sovereign queen of the Age, good queen Bess, with the "43rd Elizabeth".
For "The Able bodied poor" work- and poorhouses were supposed to be dates built by their Parish in order for them to make items useful for it and they would be paid out of "The poor Rate this would continue until they found a proper job. Otherwise they would be given "Outdoor Relief". "The Idle poor" were given none of these amenities and just like "The rogues and Vagabonds" they were flogged via public whipping through the streets until they had reached the point of learning the 'error of their ways'. As for "The rogues and Vagabonds" like the above mentioned they were given nothing but floggings if caught begging, as it was made illegal because of the huge influx of those peasants turning to that and stealing in the tudor Era. People who were caught stealing anything over 5p were hung and those that were found continuously begging were either imprisoned or hung the same. However, in the reign of Edward vi vagabonds who were caught had a high chance of having branded tongues and the 'opportunity' to become slaves for two years. So pretty much no say in that job offer then, hey!
Boys would go to a master for 24 years and girls would go to a mistress for 21 - if the girls could be found one. Investing in them the trade knowledge of the day so as to reap what they had sowed in the later years to come when they became their own trades people. Orphans would also be sent to orphanages where they were expected a safe place of living - taking the place of a family home. The elderly and sick, on the other hand, would be given a specific sum of money and maybe food. If unable to collect either both would be delivered to them. The glowing gift of hospitals was another good thing to come out of this enactment. For both the sick, disabled and the elderly went to be treated and looked after there if they had nothing and no one to do so for them.
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Shakespeare's Theatre, shakespeare page, the Tragic Vision syllabus with guide to the Study of Literature core Studies 6 Page melani home page). It was before The golden Age in sports the rule of the young Elizabeth's younger brother Edward vi in 1552 that the idea for all that would follow in aid of the poor was set in place. It was under the boy king's rule that it became easier for whomever would be to follow in his steps to see who lied within the category of being poor, as Parish registers of them arose marking an official record including that of their birth. A five years after Elizabeth came to power, in 1558, she had set about to distinguish her brother's law to a much clearer refined concept. She did this by sliding every poor peasant citizen into four separate though closely related classifications.
Watched over by her new Justices' of the peace (JP's people who were granted with the authority to raise the funds imperative for the relief of their poor. These classifications were as follows: "The Impotent poor" (the children, elderly, disabled and sick "The Able bodied poor" (those that could and wanted to work "The Idle poor" (those who were of able body but remained unwilling And "The rogues and Vagabonds" (this summed. Yet, unfortunately for them, in the days of the past, and even in areas now, these people were to be untrusted by near all). These people, by jurisdiction of the law, were under the care of their parish, a small unit within the Church organisation, containing it's very own church and clergyman. There were 15,000 parishes at the time of the Elizabethan Era in the whole of England and Wales, and every parish had to comply fully with the requirements of every classifications, as shown below. In "The Impotent poor" children from poor families and orphans were ensured to be granted apprenticeships, paid for by their Parish.
Faustus, and the powerful effects that could be achieved by focusing on a towering protagonist,. In Elizabethan tragedy, the individual leads to violence and conflict. A distinctly non-Aristotelian form of tragedy developed during this period was the tragicomedy. In a tragicomedy, the action and subject matter seem to require a tragic ending, but it is avoided by a reversal which leads to a happy ending; sometimes the tragicomedy alternates serious and comic actions throughout the play. Because it blends tragedy and comedy, the tragicomedy is sometimes referred to as a "mixed" kind. The Problem Play or Drama of Ideas.
The problem play or play of ideas usually has a tragic ending. The driving force behind the play is the exploration of some social problem, like alcoholism or prostitution; the characters are used as examples of the general problem. Frequently the playwright views the problem and its solution in a way that defies or rejects the conventional view; not surprisingly, some problem plays have aroused anger and controversy in audiences and critics. Henrik ibsen, who helped to revive tragedy from its artistic decline in the nineteenth century, wrote problem plays. A doll's house, for example, shows the exploitation and denigration of middle class women by society and in marriage. The tragedy frequently springs from the individual's conflict with the laws, values, traditions, and representatives of society. Adapted from, a guide to the Study of Literature: a companion Text for Core Studies 6, landmarks of Literature, english Department, Brooklyn College.
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The translation of Seneca and the fuller reading of Aristotle's, poetics were major influences. Many critics and playwrights, such as Ben Jonson, insisted on observing the classical unities of action, time and place (the action should be one whole and take place in one day and in one place). However, it was romantic tragedy, which Shakespeare wrote. Richard ii, macbeth, hamlet, and, king lear, which prevailed. Romantic tragedy disregarded the unities (as in the use of subplots mixed tragedy and comedy, and emphasized action, spectacle, and-increasingly-sensation. Shakespeare violated the the unities in these ways and also in mixing poetry and prose and using the device of a play-within-a-play,. The Elizabethans and their Jacobean successsors acted on stage the violence that the Greek dramatists reported. The Elizabethan and later the jacobean playwright had a diverse audience to please, ranging from queen Elizabeth and King James i and their courtiers to the lowest classes. Christopher Marlowe's tragedies showed the resources of the English language proposal with his magnificent blank verse, as in the, tragedy.
Click here for excerpts from. Medieval Tragedy and The Wheel of Fortune. The medieval tagedy is a prose or poetic narrative, not a drama. Tragedy was perceived as a reversal of fortune, a fall from a high position. This view of tragedy derives from the towns medieval concept of fortune, which was personified as Dame fortune, a blindfolded woman who turned a wheel at whim; men were stationed at various places on the wheel-the top of the wheel represented the best fortune, being under. However, the wheel could turn suddenly and the man on top could suddenly be under the wheel, without warning. Elizabethan and Shakespearean Tragedy, a distinctly English form of tragedy begins with the Elizabethans.
action that is serious and also as having magnitude, complete in itself." he continues, "Tragedy is a form of drama exciting the emotions of pity and fear. Its action should be single and complete, presenting a reversal of fortune, involving persons renowned and of superior attainments, and it should be written in poetry embellished with every kind of artistic expression." The writer presents "incidents arousing pity and fear, wherewith to interpet its. The basic difference Aristotle draws between tragedy and other genres, such as comedy and the epic, is the "tragic pleasure of pity and fear" the audience feel watching a tragedy. In order for the tragic hero to arouse these feelings in the audience, he cannot be either all good or all evil but must be someone the audience can identify with; however, if he is superior in some way(s the tragic pleasure is intensified. His disastrous end results from a mistaken action, which in turn arises from a tragic flaw or from a tragic error in judgment. Often the tragic flaw is hubris, an excessive pride that causes the hero to ignore a divine warning or to break a moral law. It has been suggested that because the tragic hero's suffering is greater than his offense, the audience feels pity; because the audience members perceive that they could behave similarly, they feel pity.
William Caxton in 1476, the, elizabethan era saw a great flourishing of the literature, especially in the field of drama, with, william Shakespeare standing out as a poet and playwright, the quality of whose output has yet to be surpassed. The English novel does not appear until much later, with. Daniel Defoe 's Robinson Crusoe (1720) estate often being recognised as the first example of the genre. Robinson Crusoe is often still used as compulsory reading for schoolchildren, particularly for esl classes. The following two centuries continued a huge outpouring of literary production, including novels, poetry, and drama, all of which remain strong in the present-day english literary culture. For information on the English language prior to the 16th century, see middle English and Old English. M financially supports the wikimedia foundation. Displaying this page does not burden wikipedia hardware resources.
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The term, english literature denotes those literary texts originating within. England proper and written in the, english language or its very close relatives (such. Middle or, old English (The term may also denote any literature composed primarily in the English language, though in other countries; for further information see articles estate on specific national literatures,., Irish literature, anglo-welsh literature, american literature, scottish literature, canadian literature, australian literature. strands of English literature include: English literature emerges as a recognisable entity only in the medieval period, when the English language itself becomes distinct from the norman and Anglo-saxon dialects which preceded. See also the article. The first great figure in English literature is the poet, geoffrey chaucer, whose, canterbury tales was a popular work of the period which is still read today. Following the introduction of a printing press into the country.