Where to put abbreviations in a thesis

where to put abbreviations in a thesis

British degree abbreviations - wikipedia

A sports report on one of the video screens is more interesting to one of the stewardesses than the view outside the window right beside. Floyd sleeps through most of his passage and when he calls home, he ignores Earth rotating in the background. People have 'gotten used to' space. The first words spoken signal the decay of human language to empty phrases: "Here you are, sir. Main level, please." Floyd would have arrived at that conclusion by himself. The "Technish" Clarke a) 121 of Mission Control, a further example, can be observed most clearly in Part Three; first hints are already visible in form of abbreviations on various monitors aboard the space vessels. What is striking is the strong contrast between progress in telecommunication and regression in human contacts and "family ties." see also: Geduld 69 An anonymous "voice print identification service" recognizes Floyd aboard the ferris-wheel station.

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Is both appropriate and inappropriate" ibid. but misinterprets its intention. To her, "it serves as a commentary on the nature of space travel in the 21st century: measured, polished, choreographed, routine. The music reassures." On the contrary, the "counterpoint invention of visual and aural images" is a brilliant alienation effect with which Kubrick again breaks with linear-causal conventions and exposes the "polished routine" to ridicule. He degrades the brightly shining space vessels to artifacts of epochs gone. See also: Nelson 160/161 They are appropriate to the music which underlines their rotations, inappropriate to the space in which they are circling; no more than "refined bones" thrown into orbit. At the same time, we get a first hint at the cyclic overall structure of 2001: the ferris-wheel-shaped space station circling in orbit, the movements of the waltz and the stewardesses walking through wheel corridors into the cockpit. The "routine" that write is shown could also be seen as a cynical comment on the time the film was shot: the era of the Apollo moon Landing Program, which resembled anything but the routine of space travel. ( 15 ) Compared with the apparent perfection of technology the human characters appear like dwarfs that try to put the stamp of their limited, earthly experiences on the vast reaches of space. See also: Nelson 153 A "comedy-like moment" is created through the commercialization of space travel: companies like pan Am, bell Telephone, or the hilton hotel chain have conquered Earth orbit and give it the trivial aura of a "middle-American air terminal." Geduld 46 The pilot. The standardization of space is also documented in the loss of wide-eyed wonder.

See also: Nelson 161 The wheel, man's greatest invention, illustrates the paradox of progress and confinement: the wheel is moving, but in circles. (We will find this paradox again later on in part three with poole's exercises in the huge centrifuge.) A wide shot from Earth over a shuttle in orbit to the moon forms another 'magical alignment' and reminds us that the goal of the 'first leg'. The "Dawn of Man" is still in progress. Kubrick does not underlie these scenes, which show. Floyd's passage to the crisis meeting on the moon, with the bombastic kind of space music one would expect of a science fiction film. Rather, he uses the classical sounds gender of The Blue danube, which give this sequence a flavor of anachronism. Geduld describes this combination as "a classical example of what Eisenstein and Pudovkin call an orchestral counterpoint of visual and aural images." Geduld 45 She recognizes the paradox that Kubrick creates here (again) - ".the waltz.

where to put abbreviations in a thesis

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Turned carnivore, man has opened a new source of food. By slaying a rival, moonwatcher (following Biblical cain) lays the foundations of human society; a hierarchical society based on Gewalt. ( 14 ) His weapon is his scepter. Part 2 / Untitled The now following drastic cut from the bone thrown into the air by moonwatcher to the bone-shaped space vessel is the most famous example of 2001's elliptic structure - or rather: of the film 2001. Clarke ends the "primeval night" Clarke a) chapter 1;.9-35 with a description of the "Ascent of Man" Clarke a) Man's development and expansion over the globe and into space - and thus establishes a linear connection to the 20th century. Kubrick, on the other hand, reduces these 4 million years to 1/24 of a second. He creates a paradox which places the "state of the art" of Man's achievements next to the very first tool but at the same time negates any form of "real" progress as it suggests that since that Pleistocene era there has been no noteworthy development. Man is still using archaic (albeit refined) bones - an awareness which the linear narration of the novel cannot convey. Kubrick "plays" with the bone imagery in orbit in numerous variations, including its "trivialization" to Floyd's roughly bone-shaped ball pen, which is floating in zero gravity during his passage to the moon.

His "playing" is gaining in passion the more he is hitting the skeleton with a large thigh bone. He finally smashes the skull with a widely-swung stroke and triumphantly throws the bone into the air. Kubrick contrapuntally highlights this scene: the more vehemently moonwatcher hits the skeleton, the more clearly it is documented through slow motion. Short intercuts of a falling tapir explain the symbolic importance of moonwatcher's deed: it "dawns" on him that he can use the bones as weapons, to fight his rivals and to hunt his loot. The scene is (literally) underscored by richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra, which we heard during the opening titles. Simultaneously with moonwatcher's growing confidence and skills in handling the bones, the melody develops, growing from dark (African?) drums to the clear and bright sounds of triumphant fanfares and thus receives its function as a motif for the evolution of Man. ( 12 ) A cynical combination which seems to suggest that only an act of violence will lead the way to the "Superman" announced by nietzsche ( 13 that development is only possible through aggression; that "Evolution" must be preceded by a "re-volution." With the. If we follow Geduld's idea of the corrupted Genesis, the monolith becomes not a tree but a stone of Knowledge, which simultaneously catalyzes Man's Rise (above the rest of Creation - also signified by the erect posture of a homo sapiens that moonwatcher's tribe adopts.

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where to put abbreviations in a thesis

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Clarke describes this situation as road to Extinction Clarke a) 11 since there does not seem to be a way out of their misery. Geduld calls this paradoxical setting a corrupted Genesis Geduld 36f as the man apes are scraping their bare living (or rather, existence) as herbivores in a garden of Eden full of carnal food. The situation changes when one morning, all of a sudden, a black slab is standing in front of their cave. An uncanny choir of voices (Requiem for Soprano, mezzo-soprano, 2 Mixed choirs and Orchestra, composed by györgy ligeti which seems to be emitted from it, announces its presence even before we see it on screen. Very carefully, the primates approach and try to touch. The polysemantic qualities of the monolith have been mentioned before. In this situation, geduld 41 sees it as a religious symbol - due to the apes' reverent posture.

It lalla does indeed remind us of Michelangelo's Creation of Adam, with the monolith taking the position of the Creator and the apes, pointing their fingers, representing newly born Man. This constellation will be repeated twice during the film 1) when Floyd touches the "Tycho monolith" on the moon; and 2) when Bowman reaches out to the monolith at the foot of his bed in the louis-seize room-with the gesture appearing more and more "ritualized". The "voices" could also be interpreted as an "attempt at communication" made by a higher developed and thus divine-seeming (extraterrestrial?) consciousness, which has rid itself of any physical manifestation and uses the monolith as a medium. We can find such a speculation - concerning ETs - in the novel, ".that mind would eventually free itself from matter. To something which, long ago, man had called 'spirit.' An if there was anything beyond that, its name could only be god." Clarke a) chapter 32; 171-176 However, geduld neglects the importance of the magical alignment, as Kubrick calls it Geduld 35, in this scene. The monolith disappears as mysteriously as it has come. However, it must have had a decisive influence, as is documented through a short intercut of the magical alignment at the beginning of the now-following "bone-smashing sequence." Geduld 41 While searching for food, one of the primates, whom Clarke introduces as moonwatcher Clarke a).

Consequently, in the film the monolith remains undefined and can stand for several things at the same time, even for something that lies beyond words, whereas Clarke (to define is to limit! ( 10 ) reduces it to "one function at a time" and does not challenge the reader to find further meanings on his/her own. Hence, the film 2001, as Nelson describes, is "organized in a way which combines a minimum of verbal clarity with a maximum of visual ambiguity." Nelson 146 For the novel this statement has to be reversed to "a maximum of verbal clarity and a minimum. A logical consequence of this "visual ambiguity" is the immense width of differing interpretations of 2001. Differing in quality and quantity - and depending on the respective author's inclination - it has been seen in the light of Biblical, Freudian, jungian or uterine ( 11 ) symbolism. But all of these views can only be highly subjective reflections, as well as this essay can only be a(nother) personal approach.


So bear with me as I describe my own interpretation of the 'meaning(s of 2001. Analysis of the film 2001 The opening credit already confronts us with an important sequence: a wide camera shot "up" from moon (which glides "down" and out of the frame) to earth and brightly shining Sun, "commented" by richard Strauss' Also sprach Zarathustra. The symbolic importance of this sequence will only be fully revealed at the end of the second part of the plot; the zarathustra-melody will receive its motif function midway through part one. Part 1 / Dawn of Man The first scenes describe the circumstances of living of a tribe of Man apes in the Pleistocene African veldt. In poor vegetation they are rivaling with tapirs and other Man ape tribes about the few brushes and one waterhole. Leopard attacks are a constant threat to all their lives.

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What is yardage the meaning of the louis-seize room ( 8 )? What do we have to expect from the returning Starchild? Clarke gives us an answer - precisely one answer. Hence, the novel meets the expectations toward a conventional, linear-causal narration. It "guides" the reader through the plot and assures him/her in his/her traditional attitude of passively receiving the strings of a "plot." At the same time, it loses a lot of just that symbolic and mystic ambiguity which makes the film a work of art. Most prominent example here is the black monolith: Clarke minutely describes its qualities and functions (e.g. Artifact of an extraterrestrial intelligence Clarke a) 70, cosmic fire alarm ( 9 teaching device Clarke a) 22, or Star Gate Clarke a) 195 daddy to "higher dimensions. Kubrick, on the other hand, "leaves the viewer standing in front of the monolith as clueless as the ape-men" Nelson 146 (and later on as the astronauts) and only defines it via its appearance and via an uncanny-sounding choir of voices.

where to put abbreviations in a thesis

I intended the film to be an intensely subjective experience that reaches the viewer at an inner level of consciousness. You're free to speculate as you wish about paper the philosophical and allegorical meaning of the film - and such speculation is one indication that it has succeeded in gripping the audience at a deep level - but I don't want to spell out a verbal. ( 6 ) The effect of such an approach can best be observed through a comparison with the novel of the same title, which Arthur. Clarke ( 7 ) wrote simultaneously with the screen play that he and Kubrick wrote together. To many questions that Kubrick deliberately leaves unanswered (From where does the monolith come? To where does it disappear? Why does hal kill the crew?

science fiction movie at all.". Out of 140 min. Of plot, less than 40 min. Contain dialog, and the strings of action are not linked in a linear-causal way but have to be connected through visual association. ( 5 ) The most memorable example is the drastic cut from the bone thrown into the air to the bone-shaped space vessel circling in orbit. But also the connections between the other main parts of the film (and, furthermore, between sequences in them) are not made through explanatory transitions but through a montage-like arrangement. Kubrick forces the viewers to free themselves from conventional, verbally defined perception; to open up to "non-language multilayered perception; and to "fill the gaps" on a highly personal, subjective level. In his own words: 2001 is a nonverbal experience; one that bypasses verbalized pigeonholing and directly penetrates the subconscious with an emotional and philosophical content. To convolute McLuhan, in 2001 the message is the medium.

Why does the idea of traveling bear so much fascination? Why are more and more people going on vacation to more and more exotic places every year - be it a cruise on a luxury liner, an adventurous excursion through the jungle, a pilgrimage, or a study trip? In literature, there is hardly any motif that is more complex and faceted than that of the voyage: "voyages of heroes symbolize the journey over the ocean of life, the overcoming of its hardships, and the achievement of completion; they are also symbols of transformation;. Such voyages are the adventures of Herakles, the. Argonauts, Odysseus, Theseus, the Knights of the round Table etc." ( 1 with his science fiction film 2001: a space Odyssey from 1968, Stanley kubrick took up the classical example of the voyage-motif and put it into the modern owl context of space travel. In the course of this paper, 2001 shall be analyzed with regard to its depiction. The voyage as a symbol of Man's course of life or development, respectively. The overall aim is to find an explanation for the ongoing fascination with the theme of traveling (both in fact and fiction which - as is argued here - is closely linked to the phenomenon that, even after almost 30 years, Stanley kubrick's science fiction. Review interpretations of what it is about ranged "from optimistic rebirth to a deterministic view of human history" ( 2 the latter of which most of all criticized "the fate-like being-ruled-from-above of Man" and "a salvation-mysticism that condemned to passivity and inertia." ( 3 ).

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2001 and the motif of The voyage by Claudia zimny, this English version of a paper written for a senior seminar. American Studies at duisburg University in Germany, titled "2001: database a space. Odyssey; The voyage motif as a symbol of Man's course of Life and. Development as depicted in Stanley kubrick's Science-fiction Film from 1968 was originally written in German because most of the material used was also in German. However, some of the books I referred to were german publications (i.e. Translations) of English-language texts, which were hard, sometimes impossible to trace for this English version of my paper. So please forgive me if the wordings of some"tions are not entirely congruent with the"tions you'd find in the books about '2001' on your shelf. Introduction: The aim of This Essay.


Where to put abbreviations in a thesis
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  3. 3.10 List of Terminology: Abbreviations, units, and others. This part of your thesis contains certain required factual information and optional information. Call number will consist of the word. Thesis followed by the year and book number. Subsequent cul thesis gifts are processed according to general thesis processing guidelines.

  4. I can t put my finger on it by i sense something strange about him. Despite the fact that the bologna process has the fundamental thesis : all recogni-tion issues will be decided on the basis of the same lisbon Convention. Another application of the logicality. Thesis is concerned with set theory. The other connectives are regarded as abbreviations in the usual way.

  5. How you can improve your site immediately. Diy themes the thesis statement. One feels that Craig would sooner put his efforts elsewhere than putting out fires lit by bultmann, Strauss, and Crossan. C) Basis bases, crisis crises, analysis analyses, synthesis syntheses, emphasis emphases, oasis oases, hypothesis hypotheses, diagnosis diagnoses, thesis theses. This thesis shall be discussed later on in part three.

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