people from his background often had Horatio alger tales as their comforting mythology, dreaming of improving their station in life one day. . Dennis also had to good fortune to be born and raised during the postwar boom, when the greatest middle class in world history existed. . There is some truth in the myth, but myth and reality did not mesh well for that myths true believers, as there is a distinct class system in America (and more than a little racism although less obvious than Englands. . Dennis took the American mythology seriously, and was such a flag-waving patriot that during his military days he got into fistfights with fellow American soldiers who criticized the usa. . even though he lived the violent life of a soldier, he deeply cared about humanity and wanted to help people. Because dennis was a medic, he wanted to become a doctor one day. . His first post-military job, however, was loading ships with weaponry heading to vietnam. 1 he was young with money in his pocket. .
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Then they would not be laughed at anymore. . In December 2014, i added a brief essay that discusses the cop of perhaps the most famous installation of the lamCo heat pump. The early Adventures of Dennis lee while lamCo struggled to establish itself in 1974, another pioneer was having his own travails. . Dennis lees life story is hard to believe, and if I had not lived a few chapters of his adventures with him, i might think him the greatest storyteller I had seen, making up grand and fanciful tales. Dennis was born in 1946 and raised in a family of migrant farm workers, when white people still did that in the usa. . His early years consisted of following the planting and harvest seasons around the usa. . he was the eldest child, and at age 13, his father informed him that they could no longer afford to feed resume him. . so, dennis left home and survived to reach age 18, after many hair-raising experiences. . he then enlisted in the military and eventually saw combat in southeast Asia, which most men never completely recover from. . he was an army medic and believed in the American dream. .
The efficiency of the heat exchangers increased the cops and came closer to that Carnot ideal. . While air-to-air heat pumps recorded cops of around two, the lamCo system registered cops of seven and higher. . The highest cop i heard of with the lamCo system was. . Other variables entered the lamco equation. . The panels would take advantage of direct solar radiation, and wind blowing on the panels would increase the heat exchange and cop. In LamCos early days, they tried getting interest in their equipment, but friend when they talked to engineers and said that their heat pump got cops of seven, they were laughed out of engineering offices. . The engineers derisively chuckled that such cops were impossible. . They were the professional descendants of engineers who said that Edisons light bulb was impossible, while it lit up the night in Menlo park. . In order to maintain their credibility, lamCo published data showing their heat pump getting cops of only around three. .
poorly designed or implemented tubing can affect efficiency, but the big variables are the two heat exchangers: the evaporator and condenser. . With heat pumps, the carnot ideal is thesis approached as heat exchangers reach ideal efficiency, which in practice means as they tend to infinite surface areas, thinnest walls for most efficient conduction, most conductive materials, and the like. LamCo discovered the virtues of large heat pump evaporators. . Imagine the heat that an ice cube can remove from a glass of ice tea as it melts. . Then imagine how much heat 100 ice cubes can remove from a punch bowl. . While the relationship is not quite that linear with the flat plate evaporator of the lamCo-style heat pump, the ability to take heat from the air is obviously greater than an evaporator with 1 of its surface area, even if a fan increases the heat. While a typical air-to-air heat pump held a few pounds of refrigerant and delivered about 50,000 btus (British Thermal Unit) per hour to a home, the lamCo-style heat pump regularly delivered 100,000 btus, and held 60 pounds of refrigerant. . More important than how many btus were delivered into the home was how efficiently they were delivered. .
boiling water is simply adding enough energy so that the motion of the molecules overcomes their attraction to each other, and liquid water is liberated as steam. . That greater disorder is known as entropy, and all heat engines face the entropy issue. . The disorder of the molecules increases as they get hotter, and less as they become cooler. . When steam condenses into liquid as it cools down, as in a steam turbines condenser, the entropy is removed from the closed system, which allows the water to be used in the cycle again. . The shape of the turbine blades, the efficiency of the tubing that links the components (straight and wide is better than curvy and narrow, so the molecules do less colliding with each other and tubing walls, and more colliding with turbine blades the heat losses. The best steam turbines today only reach about half of the carnot ideal. . The standard heat pump, however, only reached a paltry 10 of the carnot ideal in the 1970s. . It is not much better in the 21st century. . With heat pumps, the components that affect the efficiency are the pump, evaporator, condenser, and tubes that link them. .
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The solar industry in America was already growing in response to the energy crisis, and an instance of serendipity happened. . They only needed the evaporator on the roof, and they made the evaporator look like the days solar panels - large, flat, and black - and not the standard tube-and-fin heat pump evaporator. . Below are evaporator arrays on LamCo-style units in the field. Note the large, flat surface area. . The lamCo-style evaporator, in an eight-panel array, provided about 400 resume square feet of surface area contact with the environment. .
The standard heat pump provided only a few square feet at best. . LamCo stumbled onto a thermodynamic advantage. The, carnot ideal has never been attained for good reason. . With heat engines, entropy saps their efficiency. . Hot always goes to cold. . As the temperature of any substance rises, so does the motion of its molecules, and the hotter anything gets, the more disordered its molecules become. .
The cowboy understood, and asked: What if I do not have a need for air conditioning, and only want to use it to heat my home? . Then I would not want a heat pump sitting in the shade, but sitting in the sunshine. . If I put that heat pump on the roof of my house, i bet it would operate more efficiently. They did just that. . They also cut apart the evaporator array and laid it out flat, to get the full effect of the suns rays. .
They hooked up some gauges, and before that heat pump virtually exploded, they obtained some amazing data. . For producing heat, much higher efficiencies could be produced by placing the heat pump in sunlight. . The cowboy told his buddy, we'll be rich, putting heat pumps on peoples roofs. . The engineer told him the heat pump could stay on the ground; only the evaporator needed to be on the roof. . Their company was born that day on the cowboys roof. . It was named Lamco, a name based on the cowboy's wifes initials.
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A diagram of a standard air-to-air heat summary pump is presented below. In 1974, during, americas first energy crisis, a colorado cowboy bought a heat pump. . heat pumps are often used to both heat and cool homes. . In the winter they pump heat into the home, and in the summer they pump heat out of the home for air conditioning. . to work as an air conditioner in the summer, heat pumps need be placed in the shade, often next to the house. . being in the shade helps for the summer, but hinders winter performance. . The cowboy did not know how the heat pump worked and called an engineer friend of his to come over and explain. . The engineer showed that it was like a refrigerator. .
Electric essay company turbines run all the time, but idle during off-peak hours. Electric companies have long encouraged businesses to use electricity at off peak hours, and do so with preferential pricing. . For instance, in the early 20th century, the niagara mohawk electric company charged more than 17 cents per kilowatt-hour (kWh) at peak times, and less than four cents per kWh on off peak. . Also, if a home or business uses electricity for heating, electric companies can give preferential pricing. . What if heat pumps could get cops of eight? . Then heat pumps could operate at half the operating cost of natural gas furnaces. . That is where dennis lees heat pump comes into the picture.
for heat. . There are regional variations in electric and gas prices, which can make the relationship closer, however. . In addition, there are variables in the economics of producing electricity. . For instance, the electricity production infrastructure is geared toward meeting peak demand. . Only 1 of the time does the nations electric production system operate beyond 75 capacity, and it operates at about 25 capacity more than 10 of the time. . Electric demand in the United States increases about 15 between winter and summer, and the hot, daytime, business hours are the peak times, when air conditioners are running. . At night and in the winter, demand can slacken dramatically. . There are technical and practical issues with turning on and off electric company steam turbines. .
I have lived in homes heated with electric presentation heaters several times, mainly because of all the hydroelectric projects in Washington State. . When I lived in New Jersey, my apartment had electric heat. . Gas furnaces cost thousands of dollars, while electric heaters cost a small fraction of that. . Electric lines run in places where gas lines are too difficult to install. . Gas has its dangers, such as explosions and asphyxiation (reduced because artificial scent is added to natural gas, so leaks are easily detected in the home). . Electricity has its hazards, such as electrocution and radiation from high voltage lines. . Millions of homes have heat pumps. . If a heat pump can average. Cop of two, then it would be twice as efficient as using that electricity to run space heaters.
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Making a run at Alternative and Free energy. By, wade Frazier, revised June 2014, introduction. A new Kind of Technology, the, early Adventures of Dennis lee, dennis. Makes a run at It, the, pursuit of Free energy. Footnotes, introduction, this essay is ancillary to this sites main energy essay and its " my adventures " essay, and will chronicle what may be the most sustained effort ever made to bring alternative energy to the American marketplace. . i also participated in it, and the man who led the effort has been slandered, libeled, or ignored ever since, and the record needs to set the straight, for not only posteritys sake, but if humanity is to avoid its self-extinction, people need to understand. The final chapter of Dennis lees adventures has yet to be written, because owl he is still at it, even after spending a couple of years behind bars for his trouble and being run out of the usa in the 21st century. . Whatever the heroism or failings of Dennis may be, we are all responsible for how todays world works. A new Kind of Technology, since electricity is four times as expensive as natural gas, few sane Americans would heat their homes with electricity, but it happens. .