Italian nouns, notably technical terms in music and art, often retain the Italian plurals: cello celli foreign terms may take native plural forms, especially when the user is addressing an audience familiar with the language. In such cases, the conventionally formed English plural may sound awkward or be confusing. Nouns of Slavic origin add -a or -i according to native rules, or just -s : kniazhestvo kniazhestva / kniazhestvos kobzar kobzari / kobzars oblast oblasti / oblasts nouns of Hebrew origin add -im or -ot (generally m/f) according to native rules, or just -s. "Seraph" is a back-formation from "seraphim". The form "seraphims" occurs in the king James Version.) matzah matzot / matzahs kibbutz kibbutzim / kibbutzes Ot is pronounced os (with unvoiced s ) in the Ashkenazi dialect. Many nouns of Japanese origin have no plural form and do not change: bentō bentō otaku otaku samurai samurai other nouns such as kimonos, ninjas, futons, and tsunamis are more often seen with a regular English plural. In New zealand English, nouns of māori origin can either take an -s or have no separate plural form.
Thesis, definition of, thesis by merriam-Webster
This is now often treated as a singular mass noun mediums (spiritualists, or items of medium size) memorandum memoranda/memorandums millennium millennia ovum ova referendum referendums is often taken to mean plebiscites, and referenda as the propositions voted. It is often argued that referenda is incorrect because it land is a latin gerund, which did not have a plural form, while the "propositions voted on" is more like a gerundive, which could be pluralised. Spectrum spectra (as in power spectrum in electrical engineering ) stadium stadia/stadiums (the latter is far more common) stratum strata alumnus alumni corpus corpora census censuses focus foci genus genera prospectus prospectuses (plural prospectus is rare although correct in Latin) radius radii campus campuses (The. By contrast, the common plural form campuses is universally accepted.) succubus succubi (The word omnibus is similar in form but is originally dative plural, so cannot be pluralised to * omnibi : see the motor Bus.) stylus styli syllabus syllabi/syllabuses viscus viscera virus viruses (. The theoretically correct form octopodes is rarely used.) platypus platypuses (same as octopus : platypi occurs but is etymologically incorrect, and platypodes, while technically correct, is even rarer than octopodes.) terminus termini/terminuses uterus uteri/uteruses Final us remains unchanged in the plural (fourth declension the plural. Some Greek plurals are preserved in English (. Plurals of words of Greek origin final on becomes -a : automaton automata criterion criteria phenomenon phenomena polyhedron polyhedra final as in one case changes to -antes : Atlas Atlantes (statues of the titan but atlas atlases (map collections) Final ma in nouns of Greek. Stigma stigmata/stigmas stoma stomata/stomas schema schemata/schemas dogma dogmata/dogmas lemma lemmata/lemmas magma magmata/magmas anathema anathemata/anathemas enema enemata/enemas Such -ata plurals also occur in Latin words borrowed from Greek,. The a's are both short in both languages. Irregular plurals from other languages edit some nouns of French origin add an -x, which may be silent or pronounced /z beau beaux or beaus bureau bureaux or bureaus château châteaux or châteaus tableau tableaux or tableaus see also French compounds below.
Final um becomes -a, or just adds -s : addendum addenda agendum (obsolete, not listed in most dictionaries) agenda means a shredder "list of items of business at a meeting" and has the plural agendas corrigendum corrigenda curriculum curricula datum data (Now usually treated. American usage generally prefers to treat data as a singular in all contexts, including in serious and academic publishing. British usage now widely accepts treating data as singular in standard English, 13 including educated everyday usage 14 at least in non-scientific use. 15 British scientific publishing usually still prefers treating data as a plural. 16 Some British university style guides recommend using data for both the singular and the plural use 17 and some recommend treating it only as a singular in connection with computers. 18 ) In engineering, drafting, surveying, and geodesy, and in weight and balance calculations for aircraft, a datum (plural datums or data) is a reference point, surface, or axis on an object or the earth's surface against which measurements are made. Forum fora/forums ( fora is rare and might only be used to refer to more than one original Roman forum.) medium media (in communication systems and digital computers.
Because many of these plurals do not end in -s, some of them have been reinterpreted as singular forms: particularly the words datum and medium (as in a "medium of communication where the original plurals data and media are now, in many contexts, used. See below for more information. Similarly, words such as criteria and phenomena are used as singular by some speakers, although this is still considered incorrect in standard usage (see below ). Final a becomes -ae (also -æ citation needed or just adds -s : alumna alumnae formula formulae/formulas encyclopaedia (or encyclopædia) / encyclopedia encyclopaedias / encyclopedias (encyclopaediae and encyclopediae are rare) Scientific abbreviations for words of Latin origin ending in -a, such as sn for supernova. Final ex or ix becomes -ices (pronounced /siz or just adds -es : index indices /ɪndsiz/ or indexes matrix matrices /meɪtrsiz/z vertex vertices /vɜrtsiz/ Final is becomes es (pronounced /iz axis axes /æksiz/ genesis reviews geneses /dʒɛz/ nemesis nemeses /nɛməsiz/ crisis crises /kraɪsiz/ testis testes /tɛstiz. Since the word comes from Latin processus, whose plural in the fourth declension is processūs with a long u, this pronunciation is by analogy, not etymology. Axes æksiz the plural of axis, is pronounced differently from axes æksz the plural of ax(e). Final ies remains unchanged: series series species species Specie for a singular of species is considered nonstandard. It is standard meaning the form of money, where it derives from the latin singular ablative in the phrase in specie.
The choice of a form can often depend on context: for a scholar, the plural of appendix is appendices (following the original language for some physicians, the plural of appendix is appendixes. Likewise, a radio or radar engineer works with antennas, but an entomologist deals with antennae. The choice of form can also depend on the level of discourse: traditional Latin plurals are found more often in academic and scientific contexts, whereas in daily speech the Anglicized forms are more common. In the following table, the latin plurals are listed, together with the Anglicized forms when these are more common. Different paradigms of Latin pronunciation can lead to confusion as to the number or gender of the noun in question. As traditionally used in English, including scientific, medical, and legal contexts, latin nouns retain the classical inflection with regard to spelling; however those inflections use an Anglicized pronunciation : the entomologist pronounces antennae as /æntɛni/. This may cause confusion for those familiar with the Classical Latin pronunciation /æntɛnaɪ/. The words alumni (masculine plural) and alumnae (feminine plural) are notorious in this regard, as alumni in Anglicised pronunciation sounds the same as alumnae in Italianate pronunciation.
Thesis dictionary definition thesis defined
The form meese is sometimes also used humorously as the plural of moose — normally moose or mooses — or even of mouse. Miscellaneous irregular plurals edit some words have irregular plurals that do not biography fit any of the types given here. Person people (also persons, in summary more formal contexts; people can also be a singular noun with plural peoples.) die dice (in the context of gaming, where dice is also often used as the singular; and also in the semiconductor industry. Otherwise dies is used.) penny pence (in the context of an amount of money in Britain). The 1p or 1-cent coins are called pennies. Pence is abbreviated p (also in speech, as "pee.
For 10 pences see Headless nouns below. Irregular plurals from foreign languages edit Irregular plurals from Latin and Greek edit see also: Plural form of words ending in -us English has borrowed a great many words from Classical Latin and Classical Greek. The general trend with loanwords is toward what is called Anglicization or naturalization, that is, the re-formation of the word and its inflections as normal English words. Many nouns have settled on, or acquired a modern form from the original (usually latin). Other nouns have become Anglicized, taking on the normal "s" ending. In some cases, both forms are still competing.
(The word specie refers only to money, coins, from the latin ablative singular form in the phrase in specie. It has no plural form.)stone as a unit of weight equal to 14 pounds (occasionally stones) Most names for Native american peoples are not inflected in the plural: Cherokee cree comanche delaware hopi Iroquois kiowa navajo Ojibwa sioux Zuni Exceptions include Algonquins, Apaches, aztecs, Black. English sometimes distinguishes between regular plural forms of demonyms / ethnonyms (e.g. "five dutchmen "several Irishmen and uncountable plurals used to refer to entire nationalities collectively (e.g. "the dutch "the Irish. Certain other words borrowed from foreign languages such as Japanese and māori are "correctly" not inflected in the plural, although many people are not aware of this rule; see Irregular plurals from other languages below.
Plurals in -(e)n edit The plurals of a few nouns are formed from the singular by adding -n or -en, stemming from the Old English weak declension. Only the following three are commonly found: ox oxen (particularly when referring to a team of draft (draught) animals, sometimes oxes in nonstandard American English ) child children (only possible plural; originated as a double plural, with -en added to Old English plural cildra/cildru, which. Brother brethren (archaic as plural of brother meaning a male sibling, but often seen as plural of brother meaning a member of a religious congregation or fraternal organization ; 8 originated as a double plural, with -en added to early middle English brether ) The. Scots "kye" "cows" plus -en suffix, forming a double plural ) eye eyen (rare, found in some regional dialects, used by Shakespeare ) shoe shoon (rare/dialectal) house housen (rare/dialectal, used by rudyard Kipling in Puck of pook's Hill ) hose hosen (rare/archaic, used in King. In the same context, multiple vax computers are sometimes called Vaxen particularly if operating as a cluster, but multiple Unix systems are usually Unices along the latin model. 9 Apophonic plurals edit The plural is sometimes formed by simply changing the vowel sound of the singular (these are sometimes called mutated plurals foot feet goose geese louse lice dormouse dormice man men mouse mice ( computer mouse can also take the regular plural. There are many compounds of man and woman that form their plurals in the same way: postmen, policewomen, etc. The plural of mongoose is mongooses. Mongeese is a back-formation by mistaken analogy to goose / geese and is often used in a jocular context.
Plural, nouns Plus Worksheets
Nouns with identical singular and plural edit some nouns have identical singular and plural ( zero inflection). Many of these are the names of animals: bison buffalo carp cod deer duck a 5 fish kakapo (and other māori -derived words) moose pike salmon sheep shrimp squid trout As a general rule, game or other animals are often referred to in the singular. Eric Partridge refers to these sporting terms as "snob plurals" and conjectures that they may have developed by analogy with the common English irregular plural animal words "deer "sheep" and "trout". 6 Similarly, nearly all kinds of fish have no separate plural form (though there are exceptions—such as rays, sharks or lampreys). As to the word fish itself, the plural is usually identical to the singular, although fishes is sometimes used, especially when meaning "species of fish". Fishes is also used in iconic contexts, plan such as the bible story of the loaves and fishes, or the reference in The godfather, "Luca Brasi sleeps with the fishes." Other nouns that have identical singular and plural forms include: aircraft ; lined armor ; watercraft ;. But in the sense of a skill or art, the plural is regular, e blues (Referring to individual songs in the blues musical style: "play me a blues "he sang three blues and a calypso cannon (sometimes cannons) cannons" is more common in North America.
With place names this rule is not always adhered to: Germanys and Germanies are both used, 3 and Sicilies and Scillies are the standard plurals of Sicily and Scilly. Nor does the rule apply to words mountain that are merely capitalized common nouns: p o ferries (from ferry ). Other exceptions include lay-bys and stand-bys. Words ending in a y preceded by a vowel form their plurals by adding -s : day days monkey monkeys However the plural form (rarely used) of money is usually monies, although moneys is also found. 4 Also, the plural of trolley can be either trolleys or trollies, although the former is more common. Near-regular plurals edit In Old and Middle English voiceless fricatives /f /θ/ mutated to voiced fricatives before a voiced ending. 5 In some words this voicing survives in the modern English plural. In the case of /f/ changing to /v the mutation is indicated in the orthography as well; also, a silent e is added in this case if the singular does not already end with -e : bath baths /bɑ ð z /bæ ð z/ mouth.
the singular form: Where a singular noun ends in a sibilant sound —/s /z /ʃ /ʒ /tʃ/ or /dʒ/— the plural is formed by adding /ɪz/ or /əz/ (in some transcription systems. The spelling adds -es, or -s if the singular already ends in -e : kiss kisses /kɪs z / phase phases /feɪz z / dish dishes /dɪʃ z / massage massages /məsɑʒ z / or /mæsɑʒ z / witch witches /wɪtʃ z / judge judges. The spelling adds -s : lap laps /læp s / cat cats /kæt s / clock clocks /klɒk s / cuff cuffs /kʌf s / death deaths /dɛθ s / For all other words (i.e. Words ending in vowels or voiced non-sibilants) the regular plural adds /z represented orthographically by -s : boy boys /bɔɪ z / girl girls /ɡɜrl z / chair chairs /tʃɛər z / Phonologically, these rules are sufficient to describe most English plurals. However, certain complications arise in the spelling of certain plurals, as described below. Plurals of nouns in -o edit with nouns ending in o preceded by a consonant, the plural in many cases is spelled by adding -es (pronounced /z hero heroes potato potatoes volcano volcanoes or volcanos However many nouns of foreign origin, including almost all Italian.
L'insegnante scrisse l'argomento alla lavagna e chiese agli studenti di scriverci un tema per la prossima lezione. WordReference English-Italiano dictionary 2018: Compound Forms/Forme composte senior thesis, us (university: final-year dissertation) tesi di laurea nf thesis statement (dissertation: presentation of main argument) enunciato nm thesis student (sb supermarket writing doctoral dissertation) tesista nm ' thesis ' found in these entries In the English description. English nouns are inflected for grammatical number, meaning that if they are of the countable type, they generally have different forms for singular and plural. This article discusses the variety of ways in which. English plural nouns are formed from the corresponding singular forms, as well as various issues concerning the usage of singulars and plurals in English. For plurals of pronouns, see. Phonological transcriptions provided in this article are for.
Plural of, basis of, design cyberText Newsletter
Vedere Anche: Impostazioni: Un clic sulla parola: la traduce non fa niente, ricerche recenti: WordReference English-Italiano dictionary 2018: Principal Translations/Traduzioni principali thesis (unproven theory) tesi, teoria nf, the philosopher sets out an interesting thesis in this book. Il filosofo esprime una teoria interessante nel suo plan libro. Thesis, uk (doctoral dissertation) tesi, tesi di dottorato nf, the doctoral candidate took four years to write her thesis. La dottoranda ha impiegato quattro anni per scrivere la sua tesi. Thesis, us (master's dissertation) tesi, tesi di laurea nf, alex has just submitted his thesis. Alex ha appena consegnato la sua tesi di laurea. Thesis (theme for essay, discussion) argomento, tema nm, the teacher wrote the thesis on the board and asked all the students to write an essay on it for the next class.