It was even partly influenced by the high German consonant shift and is the most distant to the later developed standard language to which it contributed little. It was however the earliest Middle dutch dialect that developed a literary tradition. Since it has Old Saxon and not Low Franconian (Old Dutch) as its ancestor, dutch Low Saxon is not strictly a dutch dialect. However, it was influenced by middle dutch since the 14th century and it did play a part in the formation of the standard Dutch language in later periods. It was spoken in the oversticht territories of the episcopal principality of Utrecht and adjacent parts of guelders. Modern Dutch (15th century ) edit title page of the Statenvertaling (1637) reads: Biblia. Uyt de oorspronckelijcke talen in onse neder-landtsche tale getrouwelijck over-geset.
Round table, erasmo - tables writing desks and low tables
The sphere of political influence of a certain ruler often also created a sphere of linguistic influence, with the language within the area becoming more homogenous. Following the contemporary political divisions they are in wallpaper order of importance: West Flemish with the county of Flanders at its centre. It had been influential during the earlier Middle Ages (the "Flemish expansion but lost prestige to the neighbouring Brabantian in the 13th century. Brabantian (and related East Flemish spoken primarily in the duchy of Brabant and adjacent parts. It was an influential dialect during most of the middle Ages, during the so-called "Brabantian expansion" in which the influence of Brabant was extended outwards into other areas. Hollandic, which had the county of Holland as its heartland, where originally Old Frisian was spoken. The people mixed with Frankish settlers from Flanders and Brabant and a new Frankish dialect with a frisian substrate developed. It was less influential during most of the middle Ages but became more so in the 16th century during the "Hollandic expansion the eighty years' war took place in the southern Netherlands during this period. Limburgish, spoken by the people in the modern-day provinces of Dutch and Belgian Limburg, and adjacent lands in Germany. It was over time tied to different political areas and is therefore the most divergent of the dialects.
If only for its poetic content, the most famous Old Dutch sentence is probably hebban olla vogala nestas hagunnan, hinase hic enda tu, wat unbidan we nu all birds have started making nests, except me and you, what are we waiting for is dated. Since the sentence speaks to the imagination, it is often erroneously stated as the oldest Dutch sentence. Middle dutch (12th 15th century) edit main article: Middle dutch Old Dutch naturally evolved into middle dutch. The year 1150 is often cited as the time of the discontinuity, but it actually marks a time of profuse dutch writing and during this period a rich Medieval Dutch literature developed. There was at that time no business overarching standard language ; Middle dutch is rather a collective name for a number of closely related mutually intelligible dialects whose ancestor was Old Dutch. Where Old Dutch fragments are very hard to read for untrained Modern Dutch speakers, the various literary works of Middle dutch are somewhat more accessible. 31 The most notable difference between Old and Middle dutch is in a feature of speech known as vowel reduction. Round vowels in word-final syllables are rather frequent in Old Dutch; in Middle dutch, such vowels are leveled to a schwa. The middle dutch dialect areas were affected by political boundaries.
The Utrecht baptismal vow Attestations of Old Dutch sentences are extremely rare. The language is mostly recorded on fragmentary relics, and words have been reconstructed from Middle dutch and loan words from Old Dutch in other languages. 30 The oldest recorded is found in the salic law. In this Frankish document written around 510 the oldest Dutch sentence has been identified: yardage Maltho thi afrio lito i say to you, i free you, serf used to free a serf. Another old fragment biography of Dutch is Visc flot aftar themo uuatare a fish was swimming in the water. The oldest conserved larger Dutch text is the Utrecht baptismal vow (776800) starting with Forsachistu diobolae. Ec forsacho diabolae do you forsake the devil? I forsake the devil.
The "Low" in Old Low Franconian refers to the low countries, where Frankish was only minimally influenced by the high German consonant shift and the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law. The high German consonant shift, moving over Western Europe from south to west, caused a differentiation with the central and High Franconian in Germany. The latter would as a consequence evolve (along with Alemannic, bavarian and Lombardic ) into Old High German. At more or less the same time the Ingvaeonic nasal spirant law, moving over Western Europe from west to east, led to the development of Old English (or Anglo-saxon Old Frisian and Old Saxon. Hardly influenced by either development, Old Dutch remained close to the original language of the Franks, the people that would rule europe for centuries. The language did however experience developments of its own, such as very early final-obstruent devoicing. In fact, the find at Bergakker indicates that the language may already have experienced this shift during the Old Frankish period.
Low, coffee, table, wood coffee, table
27 The west Germanic varieties of the time are generally split into three dialect groups: Ingvaeonic (North sea germanic Istvaeonic (Weser-Rhine germanic) and Irminonic (Elbe germanic). It appears that the Frankish tribes fit primarily into the Istvaeonic dialect group with certain Ingvaeonic influences towards the northwest, which are still seen in modern Dutch. Frankish (3rd century ) edit main article: Frankish language The Frankish language itself is report poorly attested. A notable exception is the bergakker inscription, found near the dutch city of tiel, which may represent a primary record of 5th-century Frankish. Although some place names recorded in Roman texts such as vadam (modern Dutch: wad, english: "mudflat could arguably be pollution considered as the oldest single "Dutch" words, the bergakker inscription yields the oldest evidence of Dutch morphology. However, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the rest of the text.
28 The Franks emerged in the southern Netherlands ( Salian Franks ) and central Germany ( Ripuarian Franks and later descended into gaul. The name of their kingdom survives in that of France. Although they ruled the gallo-romans for nearly 300 years, their language, frankish, became extinct in most of France and was replaced by later forms of the language throughout Luxembourg and Germany in around the 7th century. It was replaced in France by Old French (a romance language with a considerable Old Frankish influence). However, the Old Franconian language did not die out at large, as it continued to be spoken in the low countries, and subsequently evolved into what we now call Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch in the low countries. In fact, Old Frankish could be reconstructed from Old Dutch and Frankish loanwords in Old French. 29 Old Dutch (5th 12th century) edit main article: Old Dutch Area in which Old Dutch was spoken Old Low Franconian or Old Dutch is regarded as the prime ancestor of a separate dutch language.
The early form of Dutch was a set of Franconian dialects spoken by the salian Franks in the fifth century, and thus, it has developed through Middle dutch to modern Dutch over the course of 15 centuries. 22 During that period, it forced Old Frisian back from the western coast to the north of the low countries, and influenced or even replaced Old Saxon spoken in the east (contiguous with the low German area). On the other hand, dutch has been replaced in adjacent lands in nowadays France and Germany. The division in Old, middle and Modern Dutch is mostly conventional, since the transition between them was very gradual. One of the few moments linguists can detect somewhat of a revolution is when the dutch standard language emerged and quickly established itself.
The development of the dutch language is illustrated by the following sentence in Old, middle and Modern Dutch: Irlôsin sol an frithe sêla mîna fan thên thia ginâcont mi, wanda under managon he was mit mi (Old Dutch) Erlossen sal hi in vrede siele mine. All Germanic languages are subject to the Grimm's law and Verner's law sound shifts, which originated in the Proto-germanic language and define the basic features differentiating them from other Indo-european languages. This is assumed to have taken place in approximately the mid-first millennium bce in the pre-roman Northern European Iron Age. 25 The germanic languages are traditionally divided into three groups: East (now extinct west, and North Germanic. 26 They remained mutually intelligible throughout the migration Period. Dutch is part of the west Germanic group, which also includes English, Scots, frisian, low German (Old Saxon) and High German. It is characterized by a number of phonological and morphological innovations not found in North or East Germanic.
Ielts, writing, task 1: ' table ' essay
Likewise, hoogduits high Dutch came into use as a dutch exonym for the german language, book spoken in neighboring German states. 16 However, 19th century germany saw the rise of the categorisation of dialects, and German dialectologists termed the german dialects spoken in the mountainous south of Germany as Hochdeutsch high German. Subsequently, german dialects spoken in the north were designated as niederdeutsch low German. The names for these dialects were calqued in the dutch language area as the exonyms Nederduits and hoogduits. As a result, nederduits no longer served as a synonym for the dutch language, and Nederlands prevailed as sole dutch endonym. It also meant that hoog high had to be dropped in one of the two meanings of hoogduits, leading to the narrowing down of duits as Dutch exonym for the german language, and hoogduits as reference for southern German dialects. History edit Old Dutch branched off more or less around the same time as Old English (Anglo-saxon Old High German, Old Frisian and Old Saxon did.
The more powerful the local polity, the wider the use of its name for the language became. 16 These names still survive in the corresponding dialect groups spoken today. 17 18 Owing to commercial and colonial rivalry in the 16th and 17th centuries between England and the low countries, a cognate of theodisk (most likely middle dutch duutsc ) was borrowed into English and developed into the exonym Dutch, which came to refer exclusively. (A essay usage of the English term Dutch that includes German survives in the United States in the name pennsylvania dutch for a local German dialect and its speakers, commonly believed to be a corruption of their endonym deitsch.) In the low countries on the contrary. This designation started at the burgundian court in the 15th century, although the use of neder, laag, bas and inferior nether" or "low to refer to the area known as the low counties goes back further in time. The romans referred to the region as Germania inferior lower" Germania). It is a reference to the low countries' downriver location at the RhinemeuseScheldt delta near the north sea. The designation Nederlands received since 1551 strong competition from the name nederduits low Dutch dutch is used here in its archaic sense that covers all continental West Germanic languages). It is a calque of the before mentioned Roman province germania inferior and an attempt by early dutch grammarians to give their language more prestige by linking it to roman times.
over time, the dutch language has been known under a variety of names. In Middle dutch dietsc, duutsc or duitsc was used. 12 It derived from the Old Germanic word theudisk, which literally means "popular" or "belonging to the populace". In Western Europe this term was used for the language of the local Germanic populace as opposed to latin, the non-native language of writing and the catholic Church. 13 In the first text in which it is found, dating from 784, theodisce refers to Anglo-saxon, the west Germanic dialects of Britain. 14 15 Although in Britain the name Englisc replaced theodisce early on, speakers of West Germanic in other parts of Europe continued to use theodisce to refer to their local speech. With the rise of local powers in the low countries during the middle Ages, language names derived from these local polities came in use as well. Vlaemsch, hollandsch and Brabantsch.
Historical linguistic minorities on the verge of extinction remain in parts of France 7 and Germany, and in Indonesia, n 1 while up to half a million native speakers may reside in the United States, canada and Australia combined. N 2, the, cape dutch dialects of, southern Africa have evolved into, afrikaans, a mutually intelligible daughter presentation language n 3 which is spoken to some degree by at least 16 million people, mainly in south Africa and Namibia. Dutch is one of the closest relatives of both. German and English n 5 and is colloquially said to be "roughly in between" them. N 6 Dutch, like english, has not undergone the high German consonant shift, does not use germanic umlaut as a grammatical marker, has largely abandoned the use of the subjunctive, and has levelled much of its morphology, including most of its case system. N 7 features shared with German include the survival of two to three grammatical genders —albeit with few grammatical consequences n 8 —as well as the use of modal particles, 8 final-obstruent devoicing, and a similar word order. N 9 Dutch vocabulary is mostly germanic and incorporates slightly more romance loans than German but far fewer than English.
Low table, re Use
For other uses of "Dutch see. The, dutch language nederlands ) is a, west Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the. Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent. Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language. 2 3 5 6, supermarket it is the third most widely spoken Germanic language, after English and German. Outside the, low countries, it is the native language of the majority of the population. Suriname where it also holds an official status, as it does. Aruba, curaçao and, sint maarten, which are constituent countries of the kingdom of the netherlands located in the.