Longhand and shorthand writing

longhand and shorthand writing

Longhand, the daily post

Backgrounds Lets no take a look at the background property. If written separately, there could be as many as 5 lines of the code to specify the background. Background-color: FFF; background-image: url(f background-repeat: no-repeat; background-attachment: fixed; background-position: left 50; Wow, that is too much to write, we can condense the above into the following for the same results: background: fff url(f) no-repeat fixed left 50; by writing the code this way, it reduces. Fonts When using the font shorthand property, there are two requirements that have to be used otherwise the font will not display correctly, these are: font-family and font-size. All other properties if not used will just default to normal. Lets take a look at the individual properties.

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Although both of these reasons are very minor, every bit of speed and size counts. In this article, i will explain the differences between shorthand and longhand for five of the more common properties, which will be: padding / margins, borders, backgrounds, fonts and lists. Now one thing that you need to remember poverty is that shorthand properties are not always the best solution to use, youll always need to way up the pros and cons before selecting the shorthand or longhand properties. Padding and Margins, with paddings and margins, there are a number of different ways that you can define this shorthand. Instead of using different properties for top, right, bottom and left, such as the example below: margin-top: 20px; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 25px; margin-left: 5px; you can use just one property to do the same thing: margin: 20px 15px 25px 5px; Both of the above examples. How about if all of the margins were the same size, such as 10px, we would be able to reduce the code even further. Margin: 10px; Lets now take a look at windows the following example: margin-top: 10px; margin-right: 15px; margin-bottom: 10px; margin-left: 15px; In the above example, we have the top and bottom the same and the left and right margins are the same, we can use the following. With the border property, you can also use shorthand properties to reduce your code, depending on if all of the borders are the same size or if they are different, you can save a fair bit of time by using the shorthand property. Take a look at the code below: border-width: 2px; border-style: solid; border-color: 000000; This can be shortened into one line of code using the following: border: 2px solid 000000; The above code is so much easier and efficient to use. What happens though if the border sizes are different? Well we can still use the shorthand code with the border-width property as seen below: border: solid 000000; border-width: 3px 1px; The above will give a border at the top and bottom 3px wide and the sides 1px, with a solid black border.

The shorthand is from the notebooks of thesis Justice john Hyde, sitting on the first Supreme court in British India in Calcutta, bengal. In and among Hyde's plain English notes are shorthand entries that hide his secret thoughts. Gregg Shorthand - the Gregg Group was founded, prompted by the lack of online shorthand resources. As the primary use for shorthand - business and legal recording - has waned in recent decades, we generally acclaim the skill as a hobby or personal tool. The purpose of the group is to promote the use of Gregg systems of shorthand by providing advice to beginners, support for students, and an association of users of this efficient, attractive, and enjoyable method of writing. Posted on, march 29, 2013, posted by, rene Spronk 2 Comments. Css shorthand Properties, one of the many great features of css is that you can use shorthand properties to reduce the file size of your css. By reducing the file size, you cut down on bandwidth and most importantly you increase the speed of your website loading times.

longhand and shorthand writing

169 farewell to longhand?

Examples of English shorthand, used for nearly 400 years, reside undeciphered in many archives today. Although there were hundreds of shorthand systems used between the paper years 16, all were based on the same principal shapes that could be made with a pen or stylus, c, other semicircles, and ) and all were based on the same phonetic linguistic units familiar. Shorthand authors adopted existing alphabets and elements from predecessors and their systems were taught and used long after their deaths, adopted and adapted by others. This makes the varieties of shorthand like a family tree linguistically, rendering the variety (just) manageable. Because the manuals that taught the systems are now available online in pdf, we have enough information to be able to identify and decipher historic shorthand documents. Deciphering shorthand after hundreds of years is an exhilarating research experience. Deciphered Shorthand Passages from the notebooks of Justice john Hyde on the supreme court in Calcutta bengal, written in Weston Shorthand, deciphered Shorthand Letter from James to robert Erskine, 1758, Written in Shelton Shorthand. Video recording of 2015 presentation, shorthand: a key best to new Historical evidence - this talk describes a case study deciphering archival documents.

Figure 5 - early draft of deciphering a hyde passage. Fortunately weston was as easy to learn (relatively) as Mason was difficult. Mason had published his system against his will, writing that It was not my design to have publisht this little piece at present, could I have well avoided it: but finding a daily increase of learners, and my self unable to supply and furnish them. Mason was ambivalent about revealing his intellectual property, but Weston published his manual so that people could learn by this book alone without any teacher. Hydes longhand is clear and easy to read despite the rapidity with which he wrote (he recorded trials) and despite the subsequent deterioration of his notebooks during two hundred years (see fig. His shorthand passages are even more deliberately written and clear than his longhand. The deliberateness with which he wrote was a clue that the passages were significant. Hyde knew that eventually someone would read his shorthand and two hundred and thirty-five years later, Andrew Otis and I did. Figure 6 - a page from Justice john Hydes legal notebooks that contains both longhand and shorthand entries (1782).

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longhand and shorthand writing

Advice for Students: taking Notes that Work

I continued this frustrating experiment until I where noticed that Hydes words were sometimes long, like examples in the manual of James Weston. I had success - resume it was weston's shorthand - and then I had to learn a third shorthand system. Deciphering shorthand can be painfully frustrating. When two letters from a shorthand alphabet are joined, they become indistinguishable from other shorthand characters in the same script that mean entirely different things. Sometimes there are three or four possibilities for every symbol. You have to keep these in your mind while applying them.

I separated the lines on the page and wrote out the possible sound combinations for each line. Then I read them aloud until I began to hear words. Still, the problem of similar shapes standing for different things persists until you have a solid knowledge of that author and his way of writing. There is no straightforward translation method and translations remain provisional until very late in the process. It is hard work (see fig.

You need to see examples of written shorthand to know how the graphic elements work together. Most shorthand authors provided some text, however brief. Since one of the main advertised uses of shorthand was to capture sermons, frequently they used examples from the bible (see fig. The structure of the system is revealed in the sample texts because they display how the alphabet, vowels, prefixes and suffixes interact and how frequently the arbitraries appear. Figure 4 - sample text from Sheltons 1647.

Tachygraphy, near actual size. Sheltons shorthand unlocked James Erskine's shorthand but it did not unlock robert Erskines or Hydes. I learned Masons shorthand next because, like shelton, it was popular brand widely used. However, masons 1707 manual was extremely difficult to use, so i shifted to the gurney rendition. Learning this second system was more frustrating than the first. As i incorporated the alphabet, prepositions and terminations and arbitraries into my brain, i stopped every two or three days to see if its rules applied to the lines of shorthand I had in front. If they turned the symbols into sounds and then into words, i was. If they did not, i was not.

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Sometimes the prepositions paper and terminations are based on the alphabet but sometimes they are not. 3) shows the alphabetical characters for p and r above the prepositional characters for per and par they are not obviously connected. Figure 3 - shorthand characters for the letters p and r above the prepositions (prefixes) per and par in three shorthand systems. Arbitraries are also important. They are shorthand characters for frequently used words. Sometimes they based on their initial alphabetical letters, but sometimes they are based on the double consonants or prepositions and terminations. Sometimes arbitraries are arbitrary. For some further confusion, arbitraries are not named arbitraries in most shorthand manuals, but are called significations, particles, adverbs or something else. When using the shorthand manuals to learn a system well enough friend to decode, memorization of the alphabet, prepositions and terminations and arbitraries is important but not sufficient.

longhand and shorthand writing

I learned Shelton first and then tried applying its rules to the documents I had in front. If the symbols became sounds that became words, i was in; if not, i kept going. Within a couple of months one of Erskines letters yielded to the key. I then discovered I had had three unknown shorthands, not two, and that some of the Erskine letters were signed. James, erskine (see fig. Figure 2 - good sample of Sheltons shorthand used in a letter by james Erskine, 1758. Although shorthand alphabets are frequently collated to compare systems, knowing the alphabet is not very useful. The more significant (and difficult) group of characters is the table of prepositions and terminations, the grammatical equivalent of our prefixes and suffixes.

them, as pupils taught and publishers reprinted the older systems. Pupils became professors, making modifications and sometimes republishing the system with a different name. No system was truly new and most systems can be described as belonging to a family. I learned the systems from their manuals. Each manual starts with an alphabet, double and triple consonants, an explanation of vowels, a section called prepositions and terminations and a table of arbitraries. Most manuals claimed, in their advertisements, that their system could be learned in hours or days with little effort. These misleading claims probably put many students off the trail because the two most important requirements are patience / time and a high tolerance for frustration. Learning shorthand is like learning to read all over again symbols must become sounds and sounds symbols.

The two systems looked considerably different (see fig. The first step was to identify the type of shorthand used. I began by owl learning the most popular and widely-used systems of the past, Thomas Sheltons. Tachygraphy (1647, used by samuel Pepys) and Williams Masons. La plume volante (1707, used by william Byrd). Neither unlocked the contents of my samples, but the effort increased my paleographical literacy enough to recognize that Hydes shorthand resembled the shorthand in James Westons manual, Stenography compleated (1738). Figure 1 - shorthand used by justice john Hyde in 1782 (left) and by robert Erskine in 1763 (right).

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Unlocking the secrets of the past. Deciphering early modern English shorthand is not for the faint of heart. Between 16there were hundreds of recorded forms of shorthand and many unrecorded ones. When we think of shorthand today, it is often of low-status female clerical work, in particular taking dictation. However, shorthand came into use in the early 1600s and grew with the publishing industry, literacy in general and writing in the vernacular. Shorthand was used privately for diaries, journals and letters and publically for sermons, trials, speeches and plays. It was a common form of writing, effective in its privacy, and there are still undeciphered documents gathering dust in attics and archives today. I was attempting to decipher two unknown scripts, one by robert owl Erskine, frs (1734-1780) and one by justice john Hyde, who sat on the first Supreme court in Calcutta, bengal (c.

Longhand and shorthand writing
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  1. abbreviated symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method. navy board, in which role he kept track of contracts and correspondence and reports having, nearly daily writing letters and reports. is a system of speed writing ( shorthand ) that uses the letters of the English alphabet already familiar to us and stream lines. differences between shorthand and longhand for five of the more common properties, which will be: padding / margins, borders. pens you can be rest assured that you will have a reliable supply of pens for your day to day shorthand and longhand writing uses. greek, roman, and Egyptian scribes used shorthand to capture the speeches of politicians, debaters, philosophers, legal figures, and.

  2. With further practice, this will lead to the ability to write faster. system of shorthand writing combining the principles of straight joinable and insertable vowel strokes and curved consanant strokes. symbolic writing method that increases speed and brevity of writing as compared to longhand, a more common method of writing a language. Longhand writing is fast becoming a lost art. It can enhance creativity and brain function during novel creation. 2018 at 4: Gregg Shorthand Manual 4th VersionHathi Trust also has reading and Writing Exercises, revised Edition, 1903.

  3. Figure 6- a page from Justice john Hydes legal notebooks that contains both longhand and shorthand entries (1782). A person writing regular longhand can reasonably get to 50 wpm just writing out regular words as fast as they can. She wrote in longhand and maintained a discplined schedule, writing five hours a day, four days a week. This shorthand method can save you lots of time and space when declaring multiple variables at the same time. time between hearing the longhand and writing the shorthand.

  4. Method of shorthand but saw its weakness and designed his own system to incorporate writing by sound, the same principle he advocated. The written characters used in the common method of writing ; opposed to shorthand, or typing or printing; handwriting. Learning curve and writing speed system of writing : the only system of shorthand that combines the best features of symbol systems with. Find a few interesting passages and practice writing them in shorthand. shows the percentage saving in writing over longhand of the above alphabetical shorthand systems plus keyscript, based on the samples.

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