Canto xvii opens with the words "So that echoing the end of Canto i, and then moves on to another dionysus-related metamorphosis story. The rest of the canto is concerned with Venice, which is portrayed as a stone forest growing out of the water. Cantos xviii and xix return to the theme of financial exploitation, beginning with the venetian explorer Marco polo 's account of Kublai khan 's paper money. Canto xix deals mainly with those who profit from war, returning briefly to the russian revolution, and ends on the stupidity of wars and those who promote them. Canto xx opens with a grouping of phrases, words and images from Mediterranean poetry, ranging from Homer through ovid, propertius and Catullus to the song of Roland and Arnaut Daniel. These fragments constellate to form an exemplum of what pound calls "clear song". There follows another exemplum, this time of the linguistic scholarship that enables us to read these old poetries and the specific attention to words this study requires.
An essay on two lines of poetry: Imagism
The poem then moves to recollections of World War i, and of pound's writer and artist friends who fought. These include richard Aldington,. Hulme, henri gaudier-Brzeska, long wyndham Lewis, ernest Hemingway and Fernand Léger, whose war memories the poem includes a passage from (in French). Finally, there is a transcript of Lincoln Steffens ' account of the russian revolution. These two events, the war and revolution, mark a decisive break with the historic past, including the early modernist period when these writers and artists formed a more-or-less coherent movement. Xviixxx edit xviixxvii published in 1928 as a draft of the cantos 17-27 by john Rodker in London. Cantos ixxx published in 1930 in a draft of xxx cantos by nancy cunard 's hours Press. Originally, pound conceived of Cantos xviixxvii as a group that would follow the first volume by starting with the renaissance and ending with the russian revolution. He then added a further three cantos and the whole eventually appeared as a draft of xxx cantos in an edition of 200 copies. The major locus of these cantos is the city of Venice.
12 The first and third of these treat of the creation of profit ex nihilo by exploiting the money supply, comparing this activity with "unnatural" fertility. The central parable contrasts this with wealth-creation based on the creation of useful goods. Canto xiii then introduces Confucius, or Kung, who is presented as the embodiment of the ideal of social order based on ethics. This section of The cantos concludes with a vision assignment of Hell. Cantos xiv and xv use the convention of the divine comedy to present pound/Dante moving through a hell populated by bankers, newspaper editors, hack writers and other 'perverters of language' and the social order. In Canto xv, plotinus takes the role of guide played by virgil in Dante's poem. In Canto xvi, pound emerges from Hell and into an earthly paradise where he sees some of the personages encountered in earlier cantos.
These lines are followed by a sequence of identity shifts involving a seal, the daughter of Lir, and other figures associated with the sea: Eleanor of Aquitaine who, through a pair of Homeric epithets that echo her name, shifts into helen of Troy, homer with. Although this last story is found in the homeric Hymn to dionysus, also contained in the divus volume, pound draws on the version in ovid 's poem Metamorphoses, thus introducing the world of ancient Rome into the poem. The next father's five cantos (iiivii again drawing heavily on pound's Imagist past for their technique, are essentially based in the mediterranean, drawing on classical mythology, renaissance history, the world of the troubadours, sappho 's poetry, a scene from the legend of El Cid that introduces. Cantos viiixi draw on the story of Sigismondo pandolfo malatesta, 15th-century poet, condottiere, lord of Rimini and patron of the arts. quot;ng extensively from primary sources, including Malatesta's letters, pound especially focuses on the building of the church of San Francesco, also known as the tempio malatestiano. Designed by leon Battista Alberti and decorated by artists including piero della Francesca and Agostino di duccio, this was a landmark renaissance building, being the first church to use the roman triumphal arch as part of its structure. For pound, who spent a good deal of time seeking patrons for himself, joyce, eliot and a string of little magazines and small presses, the role of the patron was a crucial cultural question, and Malatesta is the first in a line of ruler-patrons. Canto xii consists of three moral tales on the subject of profit.
He published the first three cantos in June, july and August 1917, in the journal poetry. In this version, the poem began as an address by the poet to robert Browning. Pound came to believe that this narrative voice compromised the intent of his poetic vision, and these first three ur-cantos were soon abandoned and a new starting point sought. The answer was a latin version of Homer 's Odyssey by the renaissance scholar Andreas divus that pound had bought in Paris sometime between 19Using the metre and syntax of his 1911 version of the Anglo-saxon poem The seafarer, pound made an English version. In using this passage to open the poem, pound introduces a major theme: the excavating of the "dead" past to illuminate the present and future. He also echoes Dante 's opening to The divine comedy in which the poet also descends into hell to interrogate the dead. The canto concludes with some fragments from the second Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite, in a latin version by georgius Dartona which pound found in the divus volume, followed by "So that —an invitation to read. Canto ii opens with some lines rescued from the ur-cantos in which pound reflects on the indeterminacy of identity by setting side by side four different versions of the troubadour poet Sordello : 11 Browning's poem of that name, the actual Sordello of flesh and.
Literary, essays of, ezra, pound
The 'magic moment' or moment of metamorphosis, bust through from"dian into 'divine or permanent world.' gods, etc. The letter columns acb/abc may indicate the sequences in which the concepts could be presented. In the light of cantos written later than this letter, it would be possible to add other recurring motifs to this list, such as: periploi voyages around vegetation rituals such as the Eleusinian Mysteries ; usura, banking and credit; and the drive towards clarity. Citation needed The poem's symbolic structure also makes use of an opposition between darkness and light. Images of light are used variously, and may represent neoplatonic ideas of divinity, the artistic impulse, love (both sacred and physical) and good governance, amongst other things. The moon is frequently associated in the poem with creativity, while the sun is more often found in relation to the sphere of political and social activity, although there is frequent overlap between the two.
From the rock Drill sequence on, the poem's effort is to merge these two aspects of light into a unified whole. Citation needed The cantos was initially published in the form of separate sections, each containing several cantos that were numbered sequentially using Roman numerals (except cantos 85109, first published with Arabic numerals ). The original publication dates for the groups of cantos are as given below. Citation needed published in 1924/5 as a draft of xvi cantos by the Three mountains Press in Paris. Pound essay had been considering writing a long poem since around 1905, but work did not begin until may 1915 when pound wrote to his mother that he was working on a long poem.
Eliot had previously approached the subject of fragmentation of human experience: while Eliot was writing, and pound editing, The waste land, pound had said that he looked upon experience as similar to a series of iron filings on a mirror. 10 Each filing is disconnected, but they are drawn into the shape of a rose by the presence of a magnet. The cantos takes a position between the mythic unity of Eliot's poem and joyce's flow of consciousness and attempting to work out how history (as fragment) and personality (as shattered by modern existence) can cohere in the "field" of poetry. Citation needed nevertheless, there are indications in pound's other writings that there may have been some formal plan underlying the work. In his 1918 essay a retrospect, pound wrote "I think there is a 'fluid' as well as a 'solid' content, that some poems may have form as a tree has form, some as water poured into a vase.
That most symmetrical forms have certain uses. That a vast number of subjects cannot be precisely, and therefore not properly rendered in symmetrical forms". Critics like hugh Kenner who take a more positive view of The cantos have tended to follow this hint, seeing the poem as a poetic record of pound's life and reading that sends out new branches as new needs arise with the final poem, like. Citation needed Another approach to the structure of the work is based on a letter pound wrote to his father in the 1920s, in which he stated that his plan was:. Live man goes down into world of dead. 'The repeat in history.'.
High quality: Literary, essays
I found after seventy years that I was not a lunatic but a moron. I should have been able to do better." 5 His views on usury shifted in his later years: two weeks before his 87th birthday he read for a gathering of friends at a café: "re usury / I was out of focus, taking a symptom. The cause is avarice." 6 However, even despite his earlier views, pound still had defenders: louis zukofsky (who was Jewish) defended pound on the basis of his personal thesis knowledge of antisemitism on the level of human exchange — even though (according to william cookson. Thus, although pound distrusted the masses, "foreigners and so forth, The cantos themselves presentation (with their references to confucius, the agrarian populism of Jeffersonian and Jacksonian Democracy, and even the "enlightened despotism" of leopold ii ) reflect the underlying conservative sentiment behind his more well-known social. Blackmur, an early critic, wrote, the cantos are not complex, they are complicated; they are not arrayed by logic or driven by pursuing emotion, they are connected because they follow one another, are set side by side, and because an anecdote, an allusion. The cantos are what Mr pound himself called them in a passage now excised from the canon, a rag-bag. 8 The issue of incoherence of the work is reflected by the equivocal note sounded in the final two more-or-less completed cantos; according to william cookson, the final two cantos show that pound has been unable to make his materials cohere, while they insist that. 9 pound and.
1, controversy edit The cantos has always been a controversial work, initially so because of stanford the experimental nature of the writing. The controversy has intensified since 1940 when pound's very public stance on the war in Europe and his support for Benito mussolini 's fascism became widely known. Much critical discussion of the poem has focused on the relationship between, on the one hand, the economic thesis on usura, pound's antisemitism, his adulation of Confucian ideals of government and his attitude towards fascism, and, on the other, passages of lyrical poetry and the. At one end of the spectrum george. Elliot has drawn a parallel between pound and Adolf Eichmann based on their antisemitism, 2 while at the other Marjorie perloff places pound's antisemitism in a wider context by examining the political views of many of his contemporaries, arguing that "We have to try. 4 Further, when Allen Ginsberg visited him in Rapallo in October 1967, pound described his previous work to ginsberg as: "A mess. Stupidity and ignorance all the way through." And later (as they dined in the pensione Alle salute da cici restaurant in Venice) he even admitted to ginsberg, peter Russell, and Michael Reck that: ". My worst mistake was the stupid suburban anti-semitic prejudice, all along that spoiled everything.
a poet who was under indictment for treason. Publication history edit, the earliest part of, the cantos to be published in book form was released by Three mountains Press in 1925 under the title. A draft of xvi cantos. The first nearly complete edition was New Directions'. The cantos (1-120) (1970). This was reissued in paperback in 1986 with the addition of the Italian Cantos 72-73. In 2015 Carcanet Press published a volume. Posthumous Cantos, a selection of discarded and uncollected drafts,.
Chinese characters as well as"tions in European languages other than English. Recourse to scholarly commentaries is almost inevitable for a close reader. The range of allusion to historical events is very broad, and abrupt changes occur with little transition. There is also wide geographical reference. Pound year added to his earlier interests in the classical Mediterranean culture and East Asia selective topics from medieval and early modern Italy and Provence, the beginnings of the United States, England of the 17th century, and details from Africa he had obtained from. Many references in the text lack explanation. Pound initially believed that he possessed poetic and rhetorical techniques which would themselves generate significance, but as time passed he became more concerned with the messages he wished to convey.
Ezra, pound, t s eliot
This article is about the series of cantos written by ezra pound. For other uses, see. The cantos by, ezra pound is a gender long, incomplete poem in 116 sections, each of which is a canto. Most of it was written between 19, although much of the early work was abandoned and the early cantos, as finally published, date from 1922 onwards. It is a book-length work, widely considered to be an intense and challenging read. The cantos is generally considered one of the most significant works of modernist poetry in the 20th century. As in pound's prose writing, the themes of economics, governance and culture are integral to the work's content. The most striking feature of the text, to a casual browser, is the inclusion.