It was followed by la henriade, an epic poem on the French King Henri iv, glorifying his attempt to end the catholic-Protestant massacres with the Edict of Nantes, and by a historical novel on King Charles xii of Sweden. These, along with his Letters on the English mark the beginning of Voltaire's open criticism of intolerance and established religions. Citation needed voltaire and the marquise also explored philosophy, particularly metaphysics, the branch of philosophy that deals with being and with what lies beyond the material realm, such as whether or not there is a god and whether people have souls. Voltaire and the marquise analysed the bible and concluded that much of its content was dubious. 64 Voltaire's critical views on religion are reflected in his belief in separation of church and state and religious freedom, ideas that he had formed after his stay in England. In August 1736, Frederick the Great, then Crown Prince of Prussia and a great admirer of Voltaire, initiated a correspondence with him. 65 That December, voltaire moved to holland for two months and became acquainted with the scientists Herman boerhaave and 's Gravesande.
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Again, a main source of essay inspiration for Voltaire were the essay years of his British exile, during which he had been strongly influenced by the works of Sir Isaac Newton. Voltaire strongly believed in Newton's theories; he performed experiments in optics at Cirey, 59 and was one of the sources for the famous story of Newton and the apple falling from the tree, which he had learned from Newton's niece in London and first mentioned. 41 In the fall of 1735, voltaire was visited by Francesco Algarotti, who was preparing a book about Newton in Italian. 60 Partly inspired by the visit, the marquise translated Newton's Latin Principia into French in full, and it remained the definitive french translation into the 21st century. 18 Both she and Voltaire were also curious about the philosophies of Gottfried leibniz, a contemporary and rival of Newton. While voltaire remained a firm Newtonian, the marquise adopted certain aspects of leibniz's arguments against Newton. 18 61 Voltaire's own book eléments de la philosophie de newton ( Elements of Newton's Philosophy ) made newton accessible and understandable to a far greater public, and the marquise wrote a celebratory review in the journal des savants. 18 62 Voltaire's work was instrumental in bringing about general acceptance of Newton's optical and gravitational theories in France. 18 63 Voltaire and the marquise also studied history, particularly those persons who had contributed to civilization. Voltaire's second essay in English had been "Essay upon the civil Wars in France".
18 Château de cirey edit In the frontispiece to voltaire's book on Newton's philosophy, émilie du Châtelet appears as Voltaire's muse, reflecting Newton's heavenly insights down to voltaire. 53 In 1733, voltaire met Émilie du Châtelet, a married mother of three who was 12 years his junior and with whom he was to have an affair for 16 years. 54 to avoid arrest after the publication of Letters, voltaire took refuge at her husband's château at Cirey-sur-Blaise, on the borders of Champagne and Lorraine. 55 Voltaire paid for the building's renovation, 56 and Émilie's husband, the marquis du Châtelet, sometimes stayed at the château with his wife and her lover. 57 The relationship had a significant daddy intellectual element. Voltaire and the marquise collected over 21,000 books, an enormous number for the time. Citation needed together, they studied these books and performed experiments in the natural sciences at Cirey, which included an attempt to determine the nature of fire. 58 having learned from his previous brushes with the authorities, voltaire began his habit of keeping out of personal harm's way and denying any awkward responsibility. He continued to write plays, such as Mérope (or la mérope française ) and began his long research into science and history.
41 In 1727, he published two essays in English, Upon the civil Wars of France, extracted from Curious Manuscripts and Upon Epic poetry of the european Nations, from Homer Down to milton. 41 After two and a half years in exile, voltaire returned to France, and after a few months living in dieppe, the authorities permitted him to return to paris. 46 At a dinner, French mathematician Charles Marie de la condamine proposed buying up the lottery that was organized by the French government to pay off its debts, and Voltaire joined the consortium, earning perhaps a million livres. 47 he invested the money cleverly and on this basis managed to convince real the court of Finances that he was of good conduct and so was able to take control of a capital inheritance from his apple father that had hitherto been tied up in trust. He was now indisputably rich. 48 49 Further success followed, in 1732, with his play zaïre, which when published in 1733 carried a dedication to fawkener that praised English liberty and commerce. 50 At this time he published his views on British attitudes toward government, literature, religion and science in a collection of essays in letter form entitled Letters Concerning the English Nation (London, 1733). 51 In 1734, they were published in French as Lettres philosophiques in rouen. 52 note 1 Because the publisher released the book without the approval of the royal censor and Voltaire regarded the British constitutional monarchy as more developed and more respectful of human rights (particularly religious tolerance) than its French counterpart, the French publication of Letters caused.
41 Voltaire circulated throughout English high society, meeting Alexander Pope, john gay, jonathan Swift, lady mary wortley montagu, sarah, duchess of Marlborough, and many other members of the nobility and royalty. 42 Voltaire's exile in Great Britain greatly influenced his thinking. He was intrigued by Britain's constitutional monarchy in contrast to French absolutism, and by the country's greater support of the freedoms of speech and religion. 43 he was influenced by the writers of the age, and developed an interest in earlier English literature, especially the works of Shakespeare, still relatively unknown in continental Europe. 44 Despite pointing out his deviations from neoclassical standards, voltaire saw Shakespeare as an example that French writers might emulate, since French drama, despite being more polished, lacked on-stage action. Later, however, as Shakespeare's influence began growing in France, voltaire tried to set a contrary example with his own plays, decrying what he considered Shakespeare's barbarities. Voltaire may have been present at the funeral of Isaac Newton, 45 and met Newton's niece, catherine conduitt.
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30 On his return to France, he secured a second publisher in rouen, who agreed to publish la henriade clandestinely. 31 After Voltaire's recovery from a month-long smallpox infection in november 1723, the first copies were smuggled into paris and essay distributed. 32 While the poem was an instant success, voltaire's new play, mariamne, was a failure when it first opened in March 1724. 33 heavily reworked, it opened at the comédie-française in April 1725 to a much-improved reception. 33 It was among the entertainments provided at the wedding of louis xv and Marie leszczyńska in September 1725. 33 Great Britain edit In early 1726, a young French nobleman, the chevalier de rohan-Chabot, taunted Voltaire about his change of name, and Voltaire retorted that his name would be honoured while de rohan would dishonour his. 34 Infuriated, de rohan arranged for Voltaire to be beaten up by thugs a few days later.
35 seeking compensation, redress, or revenge, voltaire challenged de rohan to a duel, but the aristocratic de rohan family arranged for Voltaire to be arrested and imprisoned in the bastille on without a trial or an opportunity to defend himself. 36 37 fearing an indefinite prison sentence, voltaire suggested that he be exiled to England as an alternative punishment, which the French authorities accepted. 38 On 2 may, he was escorted from the bastille to calais, where he was to embark for Britain. 39 Elémens de la philosophie de neuton, 1738 In England, voltaire lived largely in Wandsworth, with acquaintances including everard Fawkener. 40 From December 17e lodged at maiden Lane, covent Garden, now commemorated by a plaque, to be nearer to his British publisher.
In a letter to jean-Baptiste rousseau in March 1719, voltaire concludes by asking that, if rousseau wishes to send him a return letter, he do so by addressing it to monsieur de voltaire. A postscript explains: " j'ai été si malheureux sous le nom d'Arouet que j'en ai pris un autre surtout pour n'être plus confondu avec le poète roi (I was so unhappy under the name of Arouet that I have taken another, primarily so. Voltaire is known also to have used at least 178 separate pen names during his lifetime. 25 la henriade and Mariamne edit voltaire's next play, artémire ( de ), set in ancient Macedonia, opened on 15 February 1720. It was a flop and only fragments of the text survive.
26 he instead turned to an epic poem about Henri iv of France that he had begun in early 1717. 27 Denied a licence to publish, in August 1722 Voltaire headed north to find a publisher outside France. On the journey, he was accompanied by his mistress, marie-marguerite de rupelmonde, a young widow. 28 At Brussels, voltaire and rousseau met up for a few days, before voltaire and his mistress continued northwards. A publisher was eventually secured in The hague. 29 In the netherlands, voltaire was struck and impressed by the openness and tolerance of Dutch society.
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18 19 Adopts the name voltaire edit The author adopted the name voltaire in 1718, following his incarceration at the bastille. Its origin is unclear. It is an anagram of arovet li, the latinized spelling of his surname, arouet, and the initial letters of le jeune the young. 20 According to a family tradition among the descendants of his sister, he was known as le petit volontaire determined little thing as a child, and he resurrected a variant of the name in his adult life. 21 The name also reverses the syllables of Airvault, his family's revelation home town in the poitou region. 22 Richard Holmes 23 supports the anagrammatic derivation of the name, but adds that a writer such as Voltaire would have intended it to also convey connotations of speed and daring. These come from associations with words such as voltige (acrobatics on a trapeze or horse volte-face (a spinning about to face one's enemies and volatile (originally, any winged creature). "Arouet" was not a noble name fit for his growing reputation, especially given that name's resonance with à rouer to be beaten up and roué (a débauché ).
As a result, he was twice sentenced to prison and once to temporary exile to England. One satirical verse, in which Voltaire accused the régent of incest with his daughter, resulted in an eleven-month imprisonment in the bastille. 14 The comédie-française had agreed in January 1717 to stage his debut play, œdipe, and it opened in mid-november 1718, seven months after his release. 15 Its immediate critical and financial success established his reputation. 16 Both the régent and King george i of Great Britain presented Voltaire with medals as a mark of their appreciation. 17 he mainly argued for religious tolerance and freedom of thought. He campaigned to eradicate priestly and aristo-monarchical authority, and supported a constitutional tunay monarchy that protects people's rights.
whom he mixed. In 1713, his father obtained a job for him as a secretary to the new French ambassador in the netherlands, the marquis de Châteauneuf ( fr the brother of Voltaire's godfather. 11 At The hague, voltaire fell in love with a french Protestant refugee named Catherine Olympe dunoyer (known as 'pimpette. 11 Their affair, considered scandalous, was discovered by de Châteauneuf and Voltaire was forced to return to France by the end of the year. 12 Voltaire was imprisoned in the bastille from to in a windowless cell with ten-foot thick walls. 13 Most of Voltaire's early life revolved around Paris. From early on, voltaire had trouble with the authorities for critiques of the government.
Contents, biography edit, françois-Marie arouet was born in Paris, the youngest of the five children of François Arouet ( a lawyer who was a minor treasury official, and his wife, marie marguerite daumard (c. 1660 whose family was on the lowest rank of the. 4, some speculation surrounds Voltaire's date of birth, because he claimed he was born on 20 February 1694 as the illegitimate son of a nobleman, guérin de rochebrune or Roquebrune. 5, two of his older brothers—Armand-François and Robert—died in infancy, and his surviving brother Armand and sister Marguerite-catherine were nine and seven years older, respectively. 6, nicknamed "zozo" by his family, voltaire was baptized on 22 november 1694, with. François de castagnère, abbé de Châteauneuf ( fr and Marie daumard, the wife of his mother's cousin, standing as godparents. 7 he was educated by the jesuits at the collège louis-le-Grand (17041711 where he was taught Latin, theology, and rhetoric ; 8 later in life he became fluent in Italian, Spanish, and English. 9 by the time he left school, voltaire had decided he wanted to essay be a writer, against the wishes of his father, who wanted him to become a lawyer. 10 Voltaire, pretending to work in Paris as an assistant to a notary, spent much of his time writing poetry.
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For proposal other uses, see, voltaire (disambiguation). François-Marie arouet (French: fʁɑswa maʁi aʁwɛ ; 21 november 1694 known by his nom de plume, voltaire ( /voʊltɛər/ ;. French: vɔltɛʁ was a french, enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks. Christianity as a whole, especially the established. Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile and prolific writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays and historical and scientific works. He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. 3, he was an outspoken advocate of civil liberties, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma and the French institutions of his day.