This explains how foundationalism works; you must remove all of your doubt to advance to the foundationtion of which you are sure. This is called the method of doubt. Once you know what you are sure of, you can build up knowledge from there. Many wonder how we can wonder we are not dreaming. Some agree that you cannot feel pain in a dream, but others say they have. The argument that dreams are not related to memory is strong because most people do not remember their dreams. Descartes explains that in a dream you can feel as if you are using all of your senses, but they seem to be more vague than when awake. Descartes struggles with the dream issue until he comes upon his conclusion.
Epistemology, and methodology main trends and ends
I often have perceptions very much like the ones i usually have in sensation while i am dreaming. Then he goes on to say. There are no definite signs to distinguish dream experience from waking experience. These two premises lead to the conclusion that. It is possible that i am dreaming right now and that all diabetes my perceptions are false. This shows that there is no real way to know to know anything. Descartes add to his argument using foundationalism. Throughout my writings I have made it clear that my method imitates that of the architect. When an architect wants to build a house which is stable on ground where there is a sandy topsoil over underlying rock, or clay, or some other firm base, he begins by digging out a set of trenches from which he removes the sand, and. In the same way, i began by taking everything that was doubtful and throwing it out, like sand (Replies 7, at 7:537) (Lex, newman).
To begin, foundationalism is the essence of summary what we are certain. Many philosophers argue on the basis of foundationalism to find out where knowledge begins. This will help determine if neo would be able to know or not know if he is dreaming up the matrix or in fact that it is reality. The popularity of foundationalism starts with Descartes. He challenged the previously popular skepticism. In Descartes Meditations he discusses many issues relating to the question of where does knowledge come from? His main arguments appear in his dreaming argument. He first begins by stating.
I agree with his opinion that the human intellect is our survival tool. However I disagree with his lack of respect for the human thought. I think it is a very elaborate system that is a miracle of creation. Epistemology Essay, research Paper, epistemology is the nature of knowledge. Knowledge is important when considering what is reality and what is deception. The movie the matrix displays a social deception in which neo, the main character, is caught between what he thought was once reality and a whole new world that controls everything he thought was real. If I were neo, i would not truly be able to know that I was in the matrix. However, it is rational to believe that i am in the matrix and will eventually enter back into my reality later. The proof that that I can know that i am in the matrix and that I will return to reality comes from the responses of foundationalism, idealism, and pallibalism.
Relying on others: an essay
People tend to summary hold on to their religious beliefs all their life. No matter what happens many people will not abandon their beliefs. Peirces method for fixing belief is very appropriate for his belief on the nature of knowledge. As a pragmatist he views knowledge as a tool. His method of fixing beliefs are tools of the mind for the mind. Both philosophers have very different opinions, considering both are epistemolgical and pragmatic.
Nietzsche has a much more pessimistic view of the human intellect. Peirce trys to explain what we do when we are in doubt. Both offer some intriguing thoughts about the nature of knowledge. I liked peirces essay. I think he is correct that we struggle to be in a state of beliefs. He translated a very specific process that i agree that we all go through. Nietzsche was also very insightful.
Quickly you learn if you stay in the uneasy state of doubt, or return to the calm state of belief. The next method, a priori method, is the philosophers method. It is the nature of the process to believe what we want. This method is more pleasing due to believing what you want without fact or reason. For instance, someone could say you have a nice haircut, so you probably will believe. The method of authority is not as rewarding.
In this public method your beliefs are fixed for you by force. The state has control over these beliefs. Although it does not sound good, it is a good thing. If someone believes they should start killing everyone, then thier beliefs need to be fixed by the state. The last method is peirces favorite. The method of tenacity, as its name suggests, is the method of the persistent and the stubborn. This method is a private method, which allows you to hang on to your belief. A good example might be religion.
Equality before the law and its Role for Transition
Doubt being the opposite of belief again. When we enter a state of doubt, the irritation causes a struggle to attain a state of belief. Peirce says doubt leads to inquiry, which leads to belief. Peirce has very specific methods, for fixing our beliefs. These are the actions taken to get back into the state of belief. In the method of science, we use reason and reference to facts and experiences. Just like it sounds, you can test your doubts easily. An example would be that you believe you can fly. To test this you jump off your porch.
Clearly resume nietzsche does not place a high value on intellect. He tells us that your intellect even deceives yourself, at night in your dreams, and you can do nothing about. Nietzsche further demonstrates his value of truth by saying it is a sum of human relations that have been enhanced and embellished. We search for truth as an obligation to society. Nietzsche places little value on our intellect, and sees it as tool that we have used too much. Peirce offers a more optimistic, yet pragmatic, view on the nature of know ledge. Peirce feels that we all have our beliefs. He says our beliefs guide our desires and shape our actions. As humans we feel more comfortable when we are free of doubt.
lion is the king of the jungle with its sheer power and razor sharp fangs. Amazingly a human could kill a lion. Using the intellect to develop tools to subdue the large beast. If we were not a smart species, the large jaws of countless animals would have wiped us out long ago. In our modern world, our intellect still is our defense tool. Now we use it to fit in socially for our amusement. Now to survive we invented tools like lying, flattery, and deception.
Nietzsche does not feel that human knowledge is a wonderful thing. His view is also very pragmatic. Nietzsche views our knowledge as more of a tool. The opening of his essay on Truth and lie in an Extra-moral Sense begins with a comparison of the creation of the solar system and mans summary knowledge, to the collapse of the sun and mankinds demise. This long stretch of time was summed up in three sentences. No description was put into the idea of knowledge. For many, knowledge is so grand and complicated that it could never be completely explained. Obviously, nietzsche feels that we are the only things that would place any value on our knowledge.
Epistemology and Modern Physics
Epistemology Essay, research Paper, in Philosophy, book many thinkers search for the nature and grounds of human knowledge. We call this area of study Epistemology. Two important epistemological philosophers are Friedrich nietzsche and Charles Sanders peirce. Nietzsches work has had a lasting fascination for many, and has developed an almost cult following although his work has found little significance among fellow academicians. Peirce began his philosophy when he retired. His approach to knowledge is that of the pragmatists. They feel knowledge is in part a social product, meaning that we use our intellect to entertain ourselves in a society. Both philosophers have their own views on the nature of knowledge, and methods for gaining knowledge. This essay will explore the unique methods and views of both.