The financiers were without ideology. It would be a gross misinterpretation to assume that assistance for the bolshevists was ideologically motivated, in any narrow sense. The financiers were power-motivated and therefore assisted any political vehicle that would give them an entree to power: Trotsky, lenin, the tsar, kolchak, denikin - all received aid, more or less. All, that is, but those who wanted a truly free individualist society. Neither was aid restricted to statist Bolsheviks and statist counter-Bolsheviks. In Mussolini and Fascism: The view from America, has noted in regard to Thomas Lamont of guaranty Trust that Of all American business leaders, the one who most vigorously patronized the cause of Fascism was Thomas. Head of the powerful.
The, russian revolution of 1917
Moreover, russia, then and now, constituted the greatest potential competitive threat to American report industrial and financial supremacy. (A glance at a world map is sufficient to spotlight the geographical difference between the vast land mass of Russia and the smaller United States.) Wall Street must have cold shivers when it visualizes Russia as a second super American industrial giant. But why allow Russia to become a competitor and a challenge. In the late nineteenth century, morgan, rockefeller, and Guggenheim had demonstrated their monopolistic proclivities. In railroads and Regulation Gabriel Kolko has demonstrated how the railroad owners, not the farmers, wanted state control of railroads in order to preserve their monopoly and abolish competition. So the simplest explanation of our evidence is that a syndicate of Wall Street financiers enlarged their monopoly ambitions and broadened horizons on a global scale. The gigantic Russian market was to be converted into a captive market and a technical colony to be exploited by a few high-powered American financiers and the corporations under their control. What the Interstate commerce commission and the federal Trade commission under the thumb of American industry could achieve for that industry at home, a planned socialist government could achieve for it abroad. P173 The bolshevik revolution was an alliance of statist revolutionaries and statist financiers aligned against the genuine revolutionary libertarian elements in Russia. The question now in the readers' minds must be, were these bankers also secret Bolsheviks? No, of course not.
Guaranty was a backer of Ludwig Martens and his soviet Bureau, the first soviet representatives in the United States. And in mid-1920 guaranty was the soviet fiscal agent in the. S.; the first shipments of soviet gold to the United States also traced back to guaranty Trust. There is a startling reverse side to this pro-bolshevik activity - guaranty Trust was a founder of United Americans, a virulent anti-soviet organization, which noisily threatened Red invasion by 1922, claimed that 20 million of soviet funds were on the way to fund Red revolution. This duplicity raises, of course, serious questions about the intentions of guaranty Trust and its directors. Dealing with the soviets, even backing them, can be explained by apolitical greed or simply profit motive. On the other hand, spreading propaganda designed to create fear and panic while at the same time encouraging the conditions that give rise to the fear and panic is a considerably more serious problem. Is today - the largest untapped market in the world.
Its president was. Goodnow, president of Johns Hopkins University. Vice presidents were the ever active william boyce Thompson, Oscar. Straus, shredder james Duncan, and Frederick. Howe, who summary wrote 'confessions of a monopolist the rule book by which monopolists could control society. P163 As the largest trust company in the United States and controlled by the. Guaranty Trust used Olof Aschberg, the bolshevik banker, as its intermediary in Russia before and after the revolution.
Nor was either even a consistent socialist. The writer is inclined to the interpretation that the socialist appeals of each man were covers for more prosaic objectives. Each man was intent upon the commercial; that is, each sought to use the political process in Russia for personal financial ends. Whether the russian people wanted the bolsheviks was of no concern. Whether the bolshevik regime would act against the United States - as it consistently did later - was of no concern. The single overwhelming objective was to gain political and economic influence with the new regime, whatever its ideology. P154 It was commercial exploitation of Russia that excited Wall Street, and Wall Street had lost no time in preparing its program. On may 1, 1918 - an auspicious date for Red revolutionaries - the American league to aid and cooperate with Russia was established and its program approved in a conference held in the senate Office building, washington,. The officers and executive committee of the league represented some superficially dissimilar factions.
The, lincoln Putsch: America's Bolshevik revolution
In fact, most of the money came from New York city. Morgan himself contributed 100,000 and seven other contributors in New York city amassed 300,000. In World War I the red Cross depended heavily on Wall Street, and specifically on the. The red Cross was unable to cope with the demands of World War i and in effect was taken over by these new York bankers. According to john Foster Dulles, these businessmen "viewed the American Red Cross as a virtual arm of government, essays they envisaged making an incalculable contribution to the winning of the war." In so doing they made a mockery of the red Cross motto: "Neutrality and Humanity.". All expenses, including those of the uniforms-the members were all colonels, majors, captains, or lieutenants-were paid out of the pocket of William boyce Thompson.
The majority of the mission. Was made up of lawyers, financiers, and their assistants, from the new York financial district. Pmerican Red Cross Mission to russia. Was in fact a mission of Wall Street financiers to influence and pave the way for control, through either Kerensky or the bolshevik revolutionaries, of the russian market and resources. No other explanation will explain the actions of the mission. However, neither Thompson nor Robins was a bolshevik.
The great Morgan enterprises were in steel, shipping, and the electrical industry; they included General Electric, the rubber trust, and railroads. Like rockefeller, morgan controlled financial corporations - the national Bank of Commerce and the Chase national Bank, new York life Insurance, and the guaranty Trust Company. In the early part of the twentieth century the guaranty Trust Company was dominated by the harriman interests. When the elder Harriman (Edward Henry) died in 1909, morgan and associates bought into guaranty Trust as well as into mutual Life and New York life. In 1919 Morgan also bought control of Equitable life, and the guaranty Trust Company absorbed an additional six lesser trust companies. Therefore, at the end of World War I the guaranty Trust and Bankers Trust were, respectively, the first and second largest trust companies in the United States, both dominated by morgan interests.' p51 The best-documented example of Wall Street intervention in revolution is the operation.
Although the final gains of the syndicate remain unclear, the intention and role of the new York financing group are fully documented down to amounts of money, information on affiliated Chinese secret societies, and shipping lists of armaments to be purchased. In return for financial support, sun Yat-sen promised the hill syndicate railroad, banking, and commercial concessions in the new revolutionary China. P71 The wall Street project in Russia in 1917 used the red Cross Mission as its operational vehicle. Both guaranty Trust and National City bank had representatives in Russia at the time of the revolution. Endowment came from wealthy and prominent persons including. The 1910 fund-raising campaign for 2 million, for example, was successful only because it was supported by these wealthy residents of New York city.
Bbc - history - world Wars: War and
This alliance has gone unobserved largely because historians - with a few notable exceptions-have an unconscious Marxian bias and are thus locked into the impossibility of any such alliance existing. P16 Monopoly capitalists are the bitter enemies of laissez-faire entrepreneurs; and, given the weaknesses of socialist central planning, the totalitarian socialist state is a perfect captive market for monopoly capitalists, if an alliance can be made with the socialist powerbrokers. P19 There is a partnership between international salon monopoly capitalism and international revolutionary socialism for their mutual benefit. Kahn, director, American International Corp., and partner, kuhn, loeb., speaking to the league for Industrial Democracy, new York, december 30, 1924 What you radicals and we who hold opposing views differ about, is not so much the end as the means, not so much. P49 Before world War i, the financial and business structure of the United States was dominated by two conglomerates: Standard Oil, or the rockefeller enterprise, and the morgan complex of industries-finance and transportation companies. Rockefeller and Morgan trust alliances dominated not only wall Street but, through interlocking directorships, almost the entire economic fabric of the United States. Rockefeller interests monopolized the petroleum and allied industries, and controlled the copper trust, the smelters trust, and the gigantic tobacco trust, in addition to having influence in some morgan properties such as the. Steel Corporation as well as in hundreds of smaller industrial trusts, public service operations, railroads, and banking institutions. National City bank was the largest of the banks influenced by Standard Oil-Rockefeller, but financial control extended to the United States Trust Company and Hanover National Bank as well as to major life insurance companies-Equitable life and Mutual of New York.
P16, one barrier to mature understanding of recent history is the notion that all capitalists are the bitter and unswerving enemies of all Marxists and socialists. This erroneous idea originated with. Karl Marx and was undoubtedly useful to his purposes. In fact, the idea is nonsense. There has been a continuing, albeit concealed, alliance between international political capitalists and international revolutionary socialists - to their mutual benefit. This alliance has gone unobserved largely because historians-with a few notable exceptions - have towns an unconscious Marxian bias and are thus locked into the impossibility of any such alliance existing. The open-minded reader should bear two clues in mind: monopoly capitalists are the bitter enemies of laissez-faire entrepreneurs; and, given the weaknesses of socialist central planning, the totalitarian socialist state is a perfect captive market for monopoly capitalists, if an alliance can be made with. P16 One barrier to mature understanding of recent history is the notion that all capitalists are the bitter and unswerving enemies of all Marxists and socialists. This erroneous idea originated with Karl Marx and was undoubtedly useful to his purposes.
to work for the monopolists - under the name of the public good and. P16, while monopoly control of industries was once the objective. "Confessions of a monopolist" (1906). These are the rules of big business. They have superseded the teachings of our parents and are reducible to a simple maxim: Get a monopoly; let Society work for you: and remember that the best of all business is politics, for a legislative grant, franchise, subsidy or tax exemption is worth more. P16, an alternative conceptual packaging of political ideas and politico-economic systems would be that of ranking the degree of individual freedom versus the degree of centralized political control. Under such an ordering the corporate welfare state and socialism are at the same end of the spectrum. Hence we see that attempts at monopoly control of society can have different labels while owning common features.
The left and biography right sides of your equation are equals. Divide them both by 5, and that law says that the"ents on both sides will be equal: c -15 (more). Excerpts from the book wall Street and the bolshevik revolution by Antony. Sutton excerpts from the book by Antony. Sutton, arlington house, 1981 p16, both the extreme right and the extreme left of the conventional political spectrum are absolutely collectivist. The national socialist (for example, the fascist) and the international socialist (for example, the communist) both recommend totalitarian politico-economic systems based on naked, unfettered political power and individual coercion. Both systems require monopoly control of society.
The, october revolution - alpha history
Click here to summary register now. Logged in users: can comment on articles and discussions. Get 'recent posts' refreshed more regularly. Bookmark articles to your own reading list. Use the site private messaging system. Start forum discussions, submit articles, and more. Answered, in, the 'answer' is the number that 'c' must be, if 5c is really the same as -75. In order to find out what number that is, you could use 'algebra'. First, write the equation, so that you can look at it: 5c -75 Now, use the law of algebra that says: "If equals are divided by equals, then the"ents are equal".