This plan aims to reduce pm2.5 by over to 2017. 48 The most prominent government response has been in beijing, aiming to reduce pm2.5 by to 2017. 49 As the capital of China, it is suffering from high levels of air pollution. According to reuters, in September 2013, the Chinese government published the plan to tackle air pollution problem on its official website. 50 The main goal of the plan is to reduce coal consumption by closing polluting mills, factories, and smelters, and switching to other eco-friendly energy sources. 49 These policies have been taking effect, and in 2015, the average pm2.5 in 74 key cities in monitoring system is 55 μg/m3, showing.6 decrease as of 2013.
Photo, essay : The romance of Spring Flowers
37 The us embassy in beijing regularly posts automated air quality measurements at @beijingair on Twitter. On 18 november 2010, the essay feed described the pm2.5 aqi (Air quality Index) as "crazy bad" after registering a reading in excess of 500 for the first time. This description was later changed to "beyond index 38 a level which recurred in February, october, and December 2011. 39 40, following strongly divergent disclosures of particulate levels between the Observatory and the us embassy, chinese authorities asked foreign consulates to stop publishing "inaccurate and unlawful" data. 42 Officials said it was "not scientific to evaluate the air quality of an area with results gathered from just only one point inside that area and asserted that official daily average pm2.5 figures for beijing and Shanghai were "almost the same with the results. 42 by january 2013 the pollution had remote worsened with official beijing data showing an average aqi over 300 and readings of up to 700 at individual recording stations while the us embassy recorded over 755 on 1 January and 800 by 43 44 On, record. Daily particulate levels of more than 50 times the world health Organisation recommended daily level were reported in parts of the municipality. 45 In 2016, beijing's yearly-average pm2.5 was 73 μg/m3,.9 improvement compared to 2015. In total, 39 severely polluted days were recorded, 5 fewer compared to 2015. 46 2016 Air pollution in beijing as measured by air quality Index (AQI) severely polluted heavily polluted Moderately polluted Lightly polluted good Excellent government's response to the air pollution edit In an attempt to reduce air pollution, the Chinese government has made the decision. After record-high air pollution in northern China in 20, 47 the State council issued an Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Air Pollution in September 2013.
The emissions from power plants are considerably higher than in other countries, as most Chinese facilities do not employ any flue gas treatment. 31 High secondary aerosol 32 (particulates formed through atmospheric oxidation and reactions of gaseous organic compounds) contribution to particulate pollution in China is found. 33 According to the. Environmental Protection Agency, such fine particles can cause asthma, bronchitis, and acute and chronic respiratory symptoms such as shortness of breath and painful breathing, and may also lead to premature death. 34 According to the world Bank, the Chinese cities with the highest levels of particulate matter in 2004 of those studied were tianjin, chongqing, and Shenyang. 35 In 2012 stricter air pollution monitoring of ozone and PM2.5 were ordered to be gradually implemented from large cities and key areas to all prefecture-level cities, and from 2015 all prefecture-level or higher cities were included. 36 State media acknowledged the role of environmental campaigners in causing this change. On one micro-blog service, more than a million mostly positive comments were posted in less apple than 24 hours although some wondered if the standards would be effectively enforced.
25 PM2.5, consisting of margaret k, ca2, no3, and SO42-, had the most fearful impact on peoples health in beijing throughout the year, especially in cold seasons. 26 Traces of smog from mainland China has been observed to reach as far as California. 27 Sulfur dioxide emission peaked at 2006, after which it began to decline.4 in 2008 compared to 2006. 28 This was accompanied by improvements plan on related phenomenons such as lower frequency of acid rainfall. The adoption by power plants of flue-gas desulfurization technology was likely the main reason for reduced SO2 emissions. 28 Large-scale use of formaldehyde in make home building products in construction and furniture also contributes to indoor air pollution. 29 Particulates edit particulates are formed from both primary and secondary pathways. 30 Primary sources such as coal combustion, biomass combustion and traffic directly emit particulate matter (PM).
Air pollution edit north-Eastern China from space, 2009. Thick haze blown off the eastern coast of China, over bo hai bay and the yellow sea. The haze might result from urban and industrial pollution. In northern China, air pollution from the burning of fossil fuels, principally coal, is causing people to die on average.5 years sooner than they otherwise might. — tim Flannery, atmosphere of Hope, 2015. 22 Map of PM2.5 pollution over China from April to august 2014 Air pollution has become a major issue in China and poses a threat to Chinese public health. In 2016, only 84 out of 338 prefecture-level (administrative division of the people's Republic of China (prc ranking below a province and above a county ) or higher cities attained the national standard for air quality. 23 Zhong Nanshan, the president of the China medical Association, warned in 2012 that air pollution could become China's biggest health threat. 24 measurements by beijing municipal government in January 2013 showed that highest recorded level of PM2.5 (particulate matter smaller than.5 micrometers in size was at nearly 1,000 μg per cubic meter.
Photo, essay : Middlebury School in China-, beijing, cet
19 The immense urban growth of Chinese cities substantially increases the need for consumer goods, vehicles and energy. This in turn increases the burning of fossil fuels, resulting in smog. Exposure to Smog poses a threat to the health of Chinese citizens. A study from 2012 shows fine particles in the air, which cause respiratory and cardiovascular diseases are one of the key pollutants that are accounted for a large fraction of damage on the health of Chinese citizens. 20 Water pollution edit The water resources of China are affected by both severe water shortages and severe water pollution citation needed. An increasing population and rapid economic growth, as well as lax environmental oversight, have essay increased water demand and pollution.
According to an investigation in 1980, the entire country has 440 billion cubic meters of the total water consumption. Consumption by agriculture, forestry, husbandry, and country residents was about 88 per cent of the total consumption. However, an investigation shows that 19 per cent of water in main rivers which has been polluted as well as a total length of 95,000 kilometers. In addition, a survey for 878 rivers in the early 1980s shows that 80 per cent of them were polluted to some extent, and fishes became extinct in more than 5 per cent of total river length throughout the country. Furthermore, summary there are over 20 waterways unsuitable for agricultural irrigation due to water pollution. 21 In response, china has taken measures such as rapidly building out the water infrastructure and increased regulation as well as exploring a number of further technological solutions citation needed.
A draft of a 2007 combined World Bank and sepa report stated that up to 760,000 people died prematurely each year in China because of air and water pollution. High levels of air pollution in China's cities caused to 350,000-400,000 premature deaths. Another 300,000 died because of indoor air of poor quality. There were 60,000 premature deaths each year because of water of poor quality. Chinese officials asked that some of the results should not be published in order to avoid social unrest. 16 China has made some improvements in environmental protection during recent years.
According to the world Bank, 'china is one of a few countries in the world that have been rapidly increasing their forest cover. It is managing to reduce air and water pollution. 17 Vennemo., in a 2009 literature review in review of Environmental Economics and Policy, noted the wide discrepancy between the reassuring view in some Chinese official publications and the exclusively negative view in some western sources. The review stated that "although China is starting from a point of grave pollution, it is setting priorities and making progress that resemble what occurred in industrialized countries during their earlier stages of development." Environmental trends were described as uneven. A quality of surface water in the south of China was improving and particle emissions were stable. But NO2 emissions were increasing rapidly and SO2 emissions had been increasing before decreasing in 2007, the last year for which data was available. 18 Conventional approaches to air quality monitoring are based on networks of static and sparse measurement stations. However, there are drivers behind current rises in the use of low-cost sensors for air pollution management in cities.
Photo Essay - panjiayuan Market, beijing, china
Only 1 of the countrys 560 million city dwellers breathe air considered safe by the european Union, because all of its major cities are constantly covered in a "toxic gray shroud". Before and during the 2008 Summer Olympics, beijing was "frantically searching for a magic formula, a meteorological deus ex machina, to clear its skies for the 2008 Olympics." 15 lead poisoning or other types of local pollution continue to kill many Chinese children. A large section of the ocean is without marine life because of massive algal blooms caused by the high nutrients in the water. The pollution has spread internationally: sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides fall as acid rain legs on seoul, south Korea, and tokyo; and according to the journal of geophysical Research, the pollution even reaches Los Angeles in the usa. The Chinese Academy of Environmental Planning in 2003 produced an unpublished internal report which estimated that 300,000 people die each year from ambient air pollution, mostly of heart disease and lung cancer. Chinese environmental dates experts in 2005 issued another report, estimating that annual premature deaths attributable to outdoor air pollution were likely to reach 380,000 in 2010 and 550,000 in 2020. A 2007 World Bank report conducted with China's national environmental agency found that ". Outdoor air pollution was already causing 350,000 to 400,000 premature deaths a year. Indoor pollution contributed to the deaths of an additional 300,000 people, while 60,000 died from diarrhoea, bladder and stomach cancer and other diseases that can be caused by water-borne pollution." World Bank officials said "Chinas environmental agency insisted that the health statistics be removed from.
The report stated review that "hundreds of thousands of premature deaths and incidents of serious respiratory illness have been caused by exposure to industrial air pollution. Seriously contaminated by industrial discharges, many of China's waterways are largely unfit for direct human use". However, the report did acknowledge that environmental regulations and industrial reforms had had some effect. It was determined that continued environmental reforms were likely to have a large effect on reducing industrial pollution. Rticle about China's pollution problem, the new York times stated that "Environmental degradation is now so severe, with such stark domestic and international repercussions, that pollution poses not only a major long-term burden on the Chinese public but also an acute political challenge to the. Every year, ambient air pollution alone killed hundreds of thousands of citizens. 500 million people in China are without safe and clean drinking water.
affect the widespread use of paper shopping bags at clothing stores or the use of plastic bags at restaurants for takeout food. A survey by the International food Packaging Association found that in the year after the ban was implemented, 10 percent fewer plastic bags found their way into the garbage. 10, electronic waste edit, main article: Electronic waste in China In 2011, China produced.3 million tons of electronic waste. 11 The annual amount is expected to increase as the Chinese economy grows. In addition to domestic waste production, large amounts of electronic waste are imported from overseas. Legislation banning importation of electronic waste and requiring proper disposal of domestic waste has recently been introduced, but has been criticized as insufficient and susceptible to fraud citation needed. There have been local successes, such as in the city of tianjin where 38,000 tons of electronic waste were disposed of properly in 2010, but much electronic waste is still improperly handled. 12 Industrial pollution edit air pollution caused by industrial plants In 1997, the world Bank issued a report targeting China's policy towards industrial pollution.
An estimated 6 million tonnes of grain are contaminated by heavy metals every year, causing direct losses of 29 billion yuan (US2.57 billion) citation needed. Heavy metals (including mercury, lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, chromium, and zinc) in the contaminated soil have adverse health effects in human metabolism. Ingestion, contact through skin, diet through the soil-food chain, respiratory intake, and oral intake can deliver the toxic substances to human beings. 5, waste roles edit, as China's waste production increases, insufficient efforts to develop capable recycling systems have been attributed to a lack of environmental awareness. 6, in 2012, the waste generation in China was 300 million tons (229.4 kg/cap/yr). 7, a ban came into effect on that prohibited all supermarkets, department stores and shops throughout China from giving out free plastic bags, therefore encouraging people to use cloth bags as during the ancient times. Stores must clearly mark the price of plastic shopping bags and are banned from adding that price onto the price of products.
Ielts Academic essay test exam in beijing, china - ielts
Beijing air on a 2005-day after rain (left) and best a smoggy day (right). Pollution in China is one aspect of the broader topic of environmental issues in China. Various forms of pollution have increased as China has industrialised, which has caused widespread environmental and health problems. 1 2 3, china will either shut down or curtail operations at dozens of steel plants from november 2017, over the next five months under an aggressive action plan to reduce winter pollution in beijing and its surrounding areas. 4, contents, pollution statistics edit, soil contamination edit, further information: soil contamination People's Republic of China. The immense growth of the people's Republic of China since the 1980s has resulted in increased soil pollution. Citation needed, the State Environmental Protection Administration believes it to be a threat to the environment, food safety and sustainable agriculture. 38,610 square miles (100,000 km2) of Chinas cultivated land have been polluted, with contaminated water being used to irrigate a further.5 million miles (21,670 km2.) and another 2 million miles (1,300 km2) have been covered or destroyed by solid waste citation needed. The affected area accounts for one-tenth of Chinas cultivatable land.