53 Some peloponnesians suggested withdrawal to the Isthmus of Corinth and blocking the passage to peloponnesus. 53 The Phocians and Locrians, whose states were located nearby, became indignant and advised defending Thermopylae and sending for more help. Leonidas calmed the panic and agreed to defend Thermopylae. 53 According to Plutarch, when one of the soldiers complained that, "Because of the arrows of the barbarians it is impossible to see the sun leonidas replied, "Won't it be nice, then, if we shall have shade in which to fight them?" 54 Herodotus reports. 55 Xerxes sent a persian emissary to negotiate with leonidas. The Greeks were offered their freedom, the title "Friends of the persian people and the opportunity to re-settle on land better than that they possessed. 56 When leonidas refused these terms, the ambassador carried a written message by xerxes, asking him to "Hand over your arms".
The 300, spartans (1962) - imdb
46 The legend of Thermopylae, as told by herodotus, has it that the Spartans had consulted the Oracle at Delphi earlier in the year. The Oracle is said to have made the following prophecy : o ye men who dwell in the streets of broad Lacedaemon! Honor the festival of the carneia! Otherwise, either your glorious town shall be sacked by the children of Perseus, or, in exchange, must all through the whole laconian country mourn for the loss of a king, descendant of great Heracles. 48 Herodotus tells us that leonidas, in line with the prophecy, was convinced he was going to certain death since his forces were not adequate for a victory, and so he selected only Spartans with living sons. 47 The Spartan force was reinforced en route to Thermopylae by contingents from various cities and numbered more than 7,000 by the time it arrived at the pass. 49 leonidas chose to camp at, and defend, the "middle gate the narrowest part of the pass of Thermopylae, where the Phocians had built a defensive wall some time before. 50 News also reached leonidas, from the nearby city of Trachis, that there was a mountain track that could be used to outflank the pass of Thermopylae. Leonidas stationed 1,000 Phocians on the heights to prevent such a manoeuvre. 51 Finally, in mid-August, the persian army was sighted across the malian Gulf approaching Thermopylae. 52 With thesis the persian army's arrival at Thermopylae the Greeks held a council of war.
News of the imminent Persian approach eventually reached Greece in August thanks to a greek spy. 44 At this time of year the Spartans, de facto military leaders of the alliance, were celebrating the festival of Carneia. During the carneia, military activity was forbidden by Spartan law; the Spartans had arrived too late at the battle of Marathon because of this requirement. 45 It was also the time of the Olympic Games, and entry therefore the Olympic truce, and thus it would have been doubly sacrilegious for the whole Spartan army to march to war. 45 46 On this occasion, the ephors decided the urgency was sufficiently great to justify an advance expedition to block the pass, under one of its kings, leonidas. Leonidas took with him the 300 men of the royal bodyguard, the hippeis. 47 This expedition was to try to gather as many other Greek soldiers along the way as possible and to await the arrival of the main Spartan army.
However, once there, being warned by Alexander i of Macedon that the plan vale could be bypassed through business Sarantoporo pass and that Xerxes' army was overwhelming, the Greeks retreated. 41 Shortly afterwards, they received the news that Xerxes had crossed the hellespont. 40 Themistocles, therefore, suggested a second strategy to the Greeks: the route to southern Greece (boeotia, attica, and the peloponnesus) would require xerxes' army to travel through the very narrow pass of Thermopylae, which could easily be blocked by the Greek hoplites, despite the overwhelming. 42 Furthermore, to prevent the persians from bypassing Thermopylae by sea, the Athenian and allied navies could block the straits of Artemisium. Congress adopted this dual-pronged strategy. 42 However, the peloponnesian cities made fall-back plans to defend the Isthmus of Corinth, should it come to that, whilst the women and children of Athens had been evacuated en masse to the peloponnesian city of Troezen. 43 Prelude edit The persian army seems to have made slow progress through Thrace and Macedon.
In 481 bc, xerxes sent ambassadors around Greece requesting "earth and water" but very deliberately omitting Athens and Sparta. 37 Support thus began to coalesce around these two leading states. A congress of city-states met at Corinth in late autumn of 481 bc, 38 and a confederate alliance of Greek city-states was formed. It had the power to send envoys to request assistance and dispatch troops from the member states to defensive points, after joint consultation. This was remarkable for the disjointed Greek world, especially since many of the city-states in attendance were still technically at war with each other. 39 The "congress" met again in the spring of 480. A thessalian delegation suggested that the Greeks could muster in the narrow Vale of Tempe, on the borders of Thessaly, and thereby block xerxes' advance. 40 A force of 10,000 hoplites was dispatched to the vale of Tempe, through which they believed the persian army would have to pass.
Overcoming Insurmountable Odds - 300, spartans at Battle
At the ensuing Battle of results Marathon, the Athenians won a remarkable victory, which resulted in the withdrawal of the persian army to Asia. 30 Darius, therefore, began raising a huge new army with which he meant to completely subjugate Greece; however, in 486 bc, his Egyptian subjects revolted, indefinitely postponing any Greek expedition. 23 Darius then died whilst preparing to march on Egypt, and the throne of Persia passed to his son Xerxes. 31 Xerxes crushed the Egyptian revolt and very quickly restarted the preparations for the invasion of Greece. 32 Since this was to be a full-scale invasion, it required long-term planning, stockpiling, and conscription. 32 Xerxes decided that the hellespont would be bridged to allow his army to cross to europe, and that a canal should be dug across the isthmus of mount Athos (rounding which headland, a persian fleet had been destroyed in 492 BC).
33 These were both feats of exceptional ambition, which would have been beyond any other contemporary state. 33 by early 480 bc, the preparations were complete, and the army which Xerxes had mustered at Sardis marched towards Europe, crossing the hellespont on two pontoon bridges. 34 According to herodotus, xerxes' army was so large that, upon arriving at the banks of the Echeidorus river, his soldiers proceeded to drink it dry. In the face of such imposing numbers, many Greek cities capitulated to the persian demand for a tribute of earth and water. 35 The Athenians had also been preparing for war with the persians since the mid-480s bc, and in 482 bc the decision was taken, under the guidance of the Athenian politician Themistocles, to build a massive fleet of triremes that would be essential for the. 36 However, the Athenians lacked the manpower to fight on both land and sea; therefore, combating the persians would require an alliance of Greek city-states.
18 Also surviving is an epitome of the account of Ctesias, by the eighth-century byzantine Photias, though this is "almost worse than useless 19 missing key events in the battle such as the betrayal of Ephialtes, and the account of diodorus Siculus in his Universal. Diodorus' account seems to have been based on that of Ephorus and contains one significant deviation from Herodotus' account: a supposed night attack against the persian camp, of which modern scholars have tended to be sceptical. 20 21 Background edit main articles: Greco-persian Wars and Second Persian invasion of Greece a map of almost all the parts of the Greek world that partook in the persian Wars The Greek city-states of Athens and Eretria had encouraged the unsuccessful Ionian revolt against. The persian Empire was still relatively young and prone to revolts amongst its subject peoples. 22 23 Darius, moreover, was a usurper and had spent considerable time extinguishing revolts against his rule. 22 The ionian revolt threatened the integrity of his empire, and Darius thus vowed to punish those involved, especially the Athenians, "since he was sure that the ionians would not go unpunished for their rebellion".
24 Darius also saw the opportunity to expand his empire into the fractious world of Ancient Greece. 25 A preliminary expedition under Mardonius in 492 bc, to secure the land approaches to Greece, re-conquered Thrace and forced Macedon to become a client kingdom of Persia's. 26 Darius sent emissaries to all the Greek city-states in 491 bc asking for a gift of " earth and water " as tokens of their submission to him. 27 having had a demonstration of his power the previous year, the majority of Greek cities duly obliged. In Athens, however, the ambassadors were put on trial and then executed by throwing them in a pit; in Sparta, they were simply thrown down a well. 27 28 This meant that Sparta was also effectively at war with Persia. 27 Darius thus put together an amphibious task force under Datis and Artaphernes in 490 bc, which attacked Naxos, before receiving the submission of the other Cycladic Islands. The task force then moved on Eretria, which it besieged and destroyed. 29 Finally, it moved to attack Athens, landing at the bay of Marathon, where it was met by a heavily outnumbered Athenian army.
300 spartans vs 3000 romans consumer Engage
This account is fairly consistent with Herodotus'. 12 The Greco-persian entry wars are also described in less detail by a number of other summary ancient historians including Plutarch, Ctesias of Cnidus, and are referred to by other authors, as in Aeschylus in The persians. Archaeological evidence, such as the serpent Column (now in the hippodrome of Constantinople also supports some of Herodotus' specific claims. Grundy was the first modern historian to do a thorough topographical survey of the narrow pass at Thermopylae, and to the extent that modern accounts of the battle differ from Herodotus' they usually follow Grundy's. 14 For example, the military strategist Sir Basil Henry liddell Hart defers to Grundy. 15 Grundy also explored Plataea and wrote a treatise on that battle. 16 On the battle of Thermopylae itself, two principal sources, herodotus' and Simonides ' accounts, survive. 17 In fact, herodotus' account of the battle, in book vii of his Histories, is such an important source that paul Cartledge wrote: "we either write a history of Thermopylae with Herodotus, or not at all".
The Greek fleet—seeking a decisive victory over the persian armada—attacked and defeated the invaders at the battle of Salamis in late 480. Wary of being trapped in Europe, xerxes withdrew with much of his army to Asia (losing most to starvation and disease leaving Mardonius to attempt to complete the conquest of Greece. However, the following year saw a greek army decisively defeat the persians at the battle of Plataea, thereby ending the persian invasion. Both ancient and modern writers have used the battle of Thermopylae as an example of the power of a patriotic army defending its native soil. The performance of the defenders is also used as an example of the advantages of training, equipment, and good use of terrain as force multipliers and has become a symbol of courage against overwhelming odds. Contents sources edit main article: Herodotus The primary source for the Greco-persian Wars is the Greek historian Herodotus. The sicilian historian diodorus Siculus, writing in the 1st century bc in his Bibliotheca historica, also provides an account of the Greco-persian wars, partially derived development from the earlier Greek historian Ephorus.
in late august or early. The vastly outnumbered Greeks held off the persians for seven days (including three of battle) before the rear-guard was annihilated in one of history's most famous last stands. During two full days of battle, the small force led by leonidas blocked the only road by which the massive persian army could pass. After the second day, a local resident named. Ephialtes betrayed the Greeks by revealing a small path that led behind the Greek lines. Leonidas, aware that his force was being outflanked, dismissed the bulk of the Greek army and remained to guard their retreat with 300 Spartans and 700 Thespians, fighting to the death. Others also reportedly remained, including up to 900 helots and 400 Thebans ; these Thebans mostly reportedly surrendered. Themistocles was in command of the Greek navy at Artemisium when he received news that the persians had taken the pass at Thermopylae. Since the Greek strategy required both Thermopylae and Artemisium to be held, given their losses, it was decided to withdraw to salamis. The persians overran boeotia and then captured the evacuated Athens.
Thermopylae the hot Gates. The persian invasion was a delayed response to professional the defeat of the first Persian invasion of Greece, which had been ended by the. Athenian victory at the, battle of Marathon in 490. By 480 bc xerxes had amassed a huge army and navy, and set out to conquer all of Greece. The Athenian politician and general. Themistocles had proposed that the allied Greeks block the advance of the persian army at the pass of Thermopylae, and simultaneously block the persian navy at the Straits. A greek force of approximately 7,000 men marched north to block the pass in the middle of 480.
Persian Battle of Thermopylae
For other battles at Thermopylae, see. Battle of golf Thermopylae (disambiguation). "300 Spartans" redirects here. For the 1962 film, see. The, battle of Thermopylae ( /θərmɒpɪli/ thər-mop-i-lee ; Greek : Μάχη τν θερμοπυλν, machē tōn Thermopylōn ) was fought between an alliance. Greek city-states, led by, king leonidas of, sparta, and the, persian Empire. Xerxes i over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece. It took place simultaneously with the naval battle at Artemisium, in August or September 480 bc, at the narrow coastal pass.