The re-victimization on victims of domestic violence begins with the police and filters into the criminal justice system. Police rarely made arrest at the scene of domestic disputes until the passing of pro-arrest and mandatory arrest laws in 1984 (Websdale, 1998). Women movement groups continue to argue that despite the mandatory arrest laws in domestic disputes a low level of police intervention and arrest are made. Pro-arrest laws require that police make an arrest when there is probable cause to believe that a perpetrator has intentionally or wantonly caused physical injury and presents a clear danger to the victim. Mandatory arrest laws require that an arrest be made when there is probable cause to believe that physical injury has been inflicted and threats have been made using a deadly weapon. Although these laws exist the discretion to make an arrest lies almost exclusively in the hands of police. The courts are not immune to re-victimizing victims of domestic violence.
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Another factor to consider is the way women view the role of men and women in family relationships. Women that hold more traditional values such as for better or worse are more likely to stay in abusive relationships (Websdale, 1998). These values set the stage for women to feel that if they leave the children are deprived of a father (Websdale, 1998). The most compelling reason why battered women stay is she fears that if she attempts to leave the violence will escalate. Unfortunately this fear is all too real. Women have been beaten beyond recognition and even murdered as a result of trying to escape violence. Considering all the factors presented women continue to develop coping mechanism that tend to minimize the abuse. Domestic violence and the Criminal Justice system. The battering of women is not just an individual or family problem, but a social problem rooted in the devaluation of women in general. Womens movement groups began focusing attention toward the criminal justice system as a possible solution to this problem. The criminal justice system appears to be a logical resource for abused victims, however this system occasionally re-victimizes.
The victim has minimal control over the violent situation. Last in father's the cycle comes the honeymoon phase. At this stage is when the batterer is remorseful and promises that battering will never happen again. The honeymoon phase is similar to the courtship period in that the batterer is very loving, nurturing, and attentive to the victims needs. Victims are often persuaded during this phase in hopes that the batterer will revert to the person with whom she initially fell in love. Women remain hopeful that the abuse will just end. Other factors need consideration when asking why women stay in abusive relationships. The frequency of violent episodes determines the likelihood of women continuing the relationship. For instance the less severe and less frequent the violence, the more likely the woman is to stay.
While this is true another factor should be considered. The cycle of violence demonstrates the complex dynamics of an abusive relationship. There are three phases pdf in the cycle of violence: tension building phase, the followed by the acute battering incident, and finally the honeymoon phase. During the tension building phase minor battering may occur along with verbal abuse. This phase also known as walking on egg shells. Women anticipate that violence is going to happen and they try placating the batterer or women may escalate the situation to get the battering over. Eventually the tension phase evolves into the acute battering or violent phase. At this phase, the abuse happens.
I beg to differ with this notion. Whether or not physical scars are visible, the memories are still present. Women try to suppress as much abuse as possible however the abuse dominates their life. No matter how old or how suppressed the abuse is, the memories are easily remembered. No form of abuse supercedes another form nor is one type easier for a battered women to heal. Generally, a battered woman experiences all forms of abuse (physical, sexual, and emotional) in one form or another that may take years of counseling to overcome. Why battered Women Stay in Abusive relationships. As mentioned previously women stay in abusive relationship for numerous reasons. Rural Woman Battering and the justice system (Websdale, 1998) offers fear, isolation, economics, and negligent criminal justice system as reasons why rural women have a mu ch harder time escaping, these negative relationships.
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This is not to say that in urban regions men do not use guns to intimidate women but it is more difficult for men to discharge firearms without creating suspicion within the community. In rural regions the discharge of long firearms is often attributed to legitimate uses such as hunting (Websdale, 1998). For this reason, men in rural areas can paragraph use firearms to intimidate women without creating unreasonable suspicion. The rate of gun ownership is slightly higher in rural areas however; rural regions have lower rates of violence despite being well armed. This contradicts the gun ownership leading to higher rates of violence theory often supported by various anti-gun lobbies.
Women in both regions experience emotional, physical and sexual abuse. Emotional abuse refers to attacks on self-esteem, instilling fear and terror, false accusations of infidelity and consistent intimidation. Physical battering includes acts of violence such as punching, kicking, biting, throwing objects, choking, and assaultive behaviors. Sexual abuse refers to forced sexual intercourse using violence or intimidation. Some women argue that emotional abuse is worse than that of physical or sexual abuse insofar as physical scars heal and psychological scars are deep rooted (Websdale, 1998).
That way i would have to stay homehe knew I would have no choice (p 6). These tactics are also used in urban regions however as noted by websdale, 1998 are more successful in rural regions. Urban regions have resources such as pay phones, public transportation and neighbors that women can access within reasonable distance. Abusers attempt to isolate women from friends, family and work. By not allowing her to work, the abuser limits her financial resources. Being isolated from family and friends battered women have fewer people that observe the abuse, thus fewer people to offer help or encouragement to leave.
Many rural women go years without friends due to being so secluded. Community involvement (i.e church, school, social service agencies, etc) is also limited to women residing in rural regions. Due to the low number of telephone subscriptions it makes it even more difficult for rural women to stay in contact with others. The lack of support and contact with others fuels the resistance women have with leaving their batterers. Rural Domestic violence versus Urban Domestic violence. Violence is violence no matter where it happens. In my opinion, domestic violence does not differ in rural or urban regions however the use of violence may vary. For example, the threatened use or discharge of a firearm to intimidate women is more common in rural areas than urban areas (Websdale, 1998).
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Although the accessibility of resources may differ for rural and urban women, the violence experienced is the same. Farms and ranches separate many homes in rural regions allowing for residents to not have neighbors for many miles. Living in hollows (secluded areas with relatively small numbers of homes and dirt roads) without access to public transportation makes it difficult for these women to engage in community life. The distance from hollows to paved road is usually several miles. It is possible for women to walk to paved roads, however the task of bringing children along makes it difficult. The length of time it may take to get to paved roads may endanger the threat violence on women even more as they run the risk of getting caught by their perpetrator. Control tactics entry such as removing telephones, disabling vehicles, intimidation, discharging firearms, shredder and monitoring odometer readings are used by batterers to further isolate women. As evidenced by one women he did not want me to have a car.
Urban areas attract a variety of cultures making urbanites more private and autonomous. This is not to say that urban regions can not be homogenous but the likelihood of every one knowing each other is unreasonable. Isolations that Rural book Women Face, battered women in rural regions often complain of geographical and social isolation. Geographic isolation stems from the greater distances between people and places outside of the rural area. The same is true of social isolation as it, too, is a function of greater distances between people and the institutions with people (i.e. Church, social groups, school, etc). Urban women are at a greater advantage of getting assistance from the criminal justice system as more resource opportunities are within urban or city limits (Websdale, 1998).
to be countrysides or small towns when compared to urban dichotomies. Rural communities are also referred to as primitive societies in which farming, hunting, coal mining, and agriculture occupations exist. These occupations exist in urban communities, however in rural regions these occupations are greater. Rural regions are said to be more homogenous in that social interaction is heightened. Rural residents are more likely to either be related to each other, know or know of each other, and to some degree know one anothers business (Websdale, 1998). Outsiders are more noticeable and often create suspicion from rural residents. For this very reason diversity is less tolerable. The tolerance of diversity is low in rural regions, while urban regions flourish with diversity.
The physical violence endured by women has ramifications beyond what women themselves suffer. For example, babies born with birth defects are increased because of pregnant women being battered, and children witnessing domestic violence are more likely to the repeat the cycle of violence as they get older (Robinson, 2000). Not only are children living in abusive homes adversely affected by what they witness, they are at risk of being abused themselves. It is writings estimated that 40 to 50 of men who batter their spouse also physically and emotionally abuse their children (Robinson, 2000). The most commonly asked question about domestic violence is why do women stay in an abusive relationship. Multitudes of reasons exist that are extremely complex. The book rural Women Battering and the justice system (Websdale, 1998) offers several reasons why women stay in an abusive relationship including but not limited to isolation, fear, economics, and negligent criminal justice systems. While these fears are universal among women, women in rural areas seem to be at greater disadvantages than women in urban and suburban communities in terms of getting away from their perpetrators or receiving assistance from the criminal justice system. This disadvantage is primarily due to geographical and social isolation.
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Domestic violence In Rural Areas Essay, research Paper. Introduction, domestic violence is a serious criminal, familial, and societal problem. Statistics indicate that many women fall victim to domestic violence however it is impossible to quantify the actual pain and degradation they face. Fear and terror are equally impossible to quantify as women and family anticipate their next assault. Domestic violence touches all walks of life therefore the use of gender specific language should not be construed to mean that domestic violence is only perpetrated on women or in heterosexual relationships. However, academic research consistently demonstrates that the majority resume of domestic violence victims are female and the batters male. For the purpose of this paper, violence perpetrated on women from men will be the focus. Battering is the largest cause of injury to women when compared to rape, auto accidents, and mugging combined (Robinson, 2000).