Up to 20,000 particles which are leaving the collision area are traced and identified. This allows a reconstruction of reactions within the plasma. Alice setup incorporates a variety of detectors focusing on different particle properties (see fig. There are three tracking detectors in alice. The Inner Tracking System (ITS) is located closest to the beam. It has a length of about one meter and an inner radius of about three centimeters. It consists of multiple layers of silicon pixel, silicon strip and silicon drift detectors. Next, the cylindrical Time Projection Chamber (TPC) covers space from about 57 cm to 278 cm in radial dimension.
Read online untersuchungen zu sir Eglamour of Artois
About seconds after the big bang strong force decoupled from electro-weak force. After this phase transition, almost all quarks were able to buy convert to quarks only and leptons to leptons respectively. Another seconds later the temperature of the universe fell below 100 gev (kt 1 stationery ev is equivalent to t k) and weak force decoupled from electromagnetic force. This quark-Gluon Plasma existed until universe had expanded such that temperature had reached 100 mev. About 10 6 seconds after the big bang quarks combined into hadrons. Figure.4 shows the further development of the universe. A large ion collider experiment (alice) 7 Figure.5: the alice detectors (cern photo) due to its expansion, temperature and density decreased continously. Thermal excitation was no longer sufficient for creation of new hadrons (hadron era) and of new leptons (lepton era) afterwards. Down to a temperature of about 3000 K radiation density exceeded density of matter (radiation era). At the current temperature of the universe (cosmic background radiation:.7 K) matter dominates radiation (matter era). The quark-Gluon Plasma created in alice is observed indirectly.
Thus, particles loose their individuality, the whole system corresponds to a sea of the constituents of the former particles. In case of an electromagnetic plasma ions and electrons move independently, only the system as a whole is neutral with respect to electric charge. A quark-Gluon Plasma consists of the constituents of the nucleons and their interaction particles, the gluons. In this case strong interaction is dominant and only the system as a whole is neutral with respect to its charge, the color charge or flavor. The universe passed through this state about 1 µs after the big bang. It is common belief that all reviews particles, anti-particles and interaction particles were in thermodynamic equilibrium at the beginning of the universe. Because of the high energy density all particles could convert into each other and all forces had equal strength.
3 18. The target application figure.1: business overview of the lhc ring (cern photo) Maximum beam Energy.76 tev/u luminosity cm 2 s 1 Time between Collisions.1 µs Bunch Length.94 cm beam Radius.9 µm Luminosity lifetime.3 h Filling Time (both beams) 20 min. The large hadron collider (LHC) 5 Figure.2: the cern accelerator system (cern photo) 20. The target application.2 a large ion Collider Experiment (alice) Figure.3: phase diagram of the quark-Gluon Plasma (alice colaboration) Figure.4: development of the universe after the electro-weak transition (from mhw,. 523) In alice lead ions collide at a total center of mass energy of tev. Thereby a quark-Gluon Plasma is long expected to be created. A plasma is a system incorporating a large number of particles which are excited by high temperature or pressure (see fig.
Lhcb (lhc beauty Experiment) is supposed to measure cp violation in b-meson systems. Thus it contributes to the understanding of imbalance of matter and antimatter. Alice (a large ion Collider Experiment, see section.2) analyzes the quark-Gluon Plasma which will be created by the collision of two lead ions. With lhc a new generation of accelerator machines will be put into operation. Collision energies will be about 30 times higher than those of the relativistic heavy ion Collider (rhic) at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Luminosity, a measure for the rate of events of a specific process, will be more than two times larger. In proton-proton mode it will exceed existing accelerators even by two orders of magnitude. Thereby its constituent energy will be seven times larger than that of the tevatron at the fermilab. Table.1 shows some parameters of lhc in lead-lead mode.
Use inaugural in a sentence inaugural sentence
The power consumption of biography the chip is analyzed in chapter. The final proof of concept of the signal processing is given by the application in a prototype environment (chapter 10). The results of the thesis are discussed in chapter. 17 2 The target Application.1 The large hadron Collider (LHC) The large hadron Collider (LHC) is an accelerator ring, which will be built for the european Organization for Nuclear Research (cern) until the end of 2007 (see fig. It will be located in the tunnel of the former Large Electron Positron english Collider (LEP) and will be operated in two modes. Proton-proton collisions will take place at energies of 14 tev while collisions of two lead ions reach energies of 1150 tev.
Particles are injected into the 27 kilometers long lhc ring from a system of accelerators consisting of the Proton Synchrotron (PS) and the super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) (see fig. They are accelerated in two beams in opposite direction and meet at four interaction points. Around these collision points the four experiments of lhc are built. The experiments atlas (a toroidal lhc apparatus) and cms (Compact muon Solenoid) are based on proton-proton collisions and are intended to analyze nature of mass, especially to proof existence of Higgs Bosons. Furthermore theoretical models beyond the Standard Model are planned to be checked there.
The detector chambers are covered by readout boards which are carriers of the major building blocks. These are multi Chip Modules (MCM) which incorporate one analog and one mixed signal chip. The analog Preamplifier and Shaper Chip (pasa) is connected to the detector chamber output channels and drives the analog inputs of the mixed signal chip. This Tracklet Processing Chip (trap) performs analog-to-digital conversion, digital filtering, event buffering and local tracking. Due to the well-defined task and tight boundary conditions like timing, analog noise generation and power consumption, the chip was realized as an Application Specific Integrated Circuit (asic). This thesis describes the digital signal path of the trap chip which consists of a filter and a preprocessor preparing data for four on-chip cpus.
It is divided into a structural presentation, the elaboration of its functionality and the description of application aspects. Chapter 2 gives an overview on the target application, the alice experiment. It describes how the trap chips are interated in the detector design. The general structure and the mayor components of the chip are presented in chapter. With the knowledge of the available devices it is possible to realize the mayor functionality of the chip. The data acquisition and readout is described in chapter 4, while the data processing is separated in digital filtering (chapter 5) and local tracking (chapter 6). The signal processing system has to be adapted to the actual boundary conditions. Therefore the system is tuned by a couple of parameters, their calibration is presented in chapter. To guarantee the functionality of the chip, a test environment has been developed, it is described in chapter.
Die unterlassunsklage im Warenzeichenrecht
This is fast enough to use it as a primary part of the about alice trigger system. Therefore particle identification and tracking has to be performed within a time budget of six. The processing of the trd.2 million channels within this time corresponds to a data rate of up to five terabytes per second. That challenge is handled by a hierarchical approach. Piecewise tracking and first estimate of particle identity are realized locally within the front-end electronics. On a global stage, track segments have to be combined to common tracks. Here, final particle classification and transverse momentum determination are accomplished. Thus the data flow from the detector to the Global Tracking Unit (GTU) is reduced to the percent level during the trigger phase. To satisfy the requirements given above, front-end electronics with specialized components has been developed.
The so-called trigger romney systems take these decisions by the analysis of quickly available sensor information from the detector. While in classical detector architectures there is a spacial separation of readout electronics and sensors from trigger and data acquisition system, parts of the trigger functionality migrate on the detector in experiments of the next generation. A large ion Collider Experiment (alice) is one of the four new experiments on the large hadron Collider (LHC) which will be built at cern, geneva, until It is the goal to analyze the quark-Gluon Plasma which will be created by the collision of two. An indication for an interesting reaction is the observation of electron pairs leaving reaction area with high transverse momentum. To identify those particles the Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) is integrated into the experiment. It makes possible separation of electrons from pion background by transition radiation photons and determination of transverse momentum by calculation of the curvature of the particle tracks. The readout time of the trd is about two microseconds.
hadron Collider (LHC) a large ion Collider Experiment (alice) The Transition Radiation Detector (TRD) The alice trigger System The trd trigger The Global Tracking Unit (GTU) alice trd front-end Electronics The Tracklet Processing. 523) the alice detectors (cern photo) structure of the alice trd mean ionization of one detector chamber along a particle track energy deposit of one particle track at a momentum of 1 gev/c latencies and rates of the several trigger levels display of a simulated. 29 one multi Chip Module (MCM) incorporating one pasa on the left hand side and one trap on the right hand side one mcm coated with glob top, integrated on a readout board and connected to a detector chamber via a ribbon cable on the. There are half chamber mergers on two of the boards and one dcs board main signal path of the trap chip structure of the trap chip layout of the trap chip: analog digital converters 1, event buffer 2, instruction memory 3, data memory 4, readout. The apparatus for such experiments consists of an accelerator machine and a detector which traces and identifies particles resulting from the collision reaction. The technology of both accelerators and detectors has developed rapidly during the last decades. By increasing collision energy and improving spatial resolution it has been possible to resolve several levels of the structure of matter. While the demand of higher energies leads to larger accelerator machines with several kilometers circumference, the need of higher accuracy at last causes a huge increment of the amount of raw sensor information, which has to be processed per collision event. To achieve an optimum utilization of bandwidth to mass storage, a selection of events with interesting reactions has to be performed.
In der Arbeit wird der Bogen gespannt vom Hardware-Entwurf von Filter und Preprozessor über deren Kalibration, die programmierung der cpus bis hin zu ersten Anwendungsstudien an einem Prototypensystem. Local Signal Processing of the alice transition Radiation Detector at lhc (cern) The transition radiation detector of the heavy ion experiment alice at lhc (cern) integrates parts of the data acquisition and trigger system. Therefore, a multi chip module has been developped which incorporates two microchips. Detector signals are preamplified and shaped (Preamplifier and Shaper Chip, pasa). Thereafter they are converted from analog to digital and are processed (Tracklet Processing Chip, trap). This thesis describes the digital signal processing book of the trap chip. The input signals are filtered digitally. Then, they are analyzed by a preprocessor and four cpus with respect to segments of tracks.
Search Results for University of Pennsylvania
1 Inaugural-Dissertation zur Erlangung der doktorwürde der gesamtfakultät der Ruprecht-Karls-Universität heidelberg vorgelegt von Diplom-Physiker Marcus Gutfleisch aus heidelberg Tag der mündlichen Prüfung: 2 3 Local Signal Processing of the alice transition Radiation Detector at lhc (cern) Gutachter: Prof. Bernd Jähne 4 5 lokale signalverarbeitung des alice übergangsstrahlungsdetektors am lhc (cern) beim Schwerionenexperiment alice am lhc (cern) werden innerhalb des Übergangsstrahlungsdetektors bereits teile des Datennahme- und Triggersystems integriert. Hierfür wurde plan ein aus zwei mikrochips bestehendes Modul entwickelt. Die detektorsignale werden vorverstärkt und geformt (Preamplifier and Shaper Chip, pasa). Danach werden sie analog-digital-gewandelt und weiterverarbeitet (Tracklet Processor Chip, trap). Diese Arbeit beschreibt die digitale signalverarbeitung im trap-chip. Die eingangssignale werden digital gefiltert und durch einen Preprozessor sowie vier cpus hinsichtlich teilchenspurabschnitten untersucht.