Though Asian Americans are the fastest growing immigrant group in the United States, representing.8 percent of the total population, there are only about 7,196 Burmese Americans. The majority of these are first-generation immigrants who have settled in large cities such as Chicago, new York, los Angeles and Washington. Acculturation and Assimilation, burmese culture incorporates a number of folk traditions that include drama (called pwe ) based on stories of the former lives of the buddha, highly percussive traditional music and dance influenced by that of southern India. Traditional hand crafts include wood carving, lacquerwork, gold work, silver work and sculpture. Cuisine, the burmese food consists primarily of rice, vegetables and fish, but also borrows from both Indian and Chinese traditions. Burmese use ngapi, a preserved fish paste, to accent meals, and include garlic, ginger, fish sauce and dried shrimps as flavorings.
List of languages by writing system - wikipedia
Aung San suu kyi won the nobel Prize for peace in 1991. It was not until after Saw maung was replaced in 1992 by general Than Shwe that the slorc permitted the new government to convene. Nonetheless, the slorc continues to rule myanmar. Significant immigration waves and settlement patterns. It was not until after 1962 brief that the burmese began to immigrate to the United States. The Immigration Act of 1924 was passed primarily to exclude Asian immigrants. Between 19, there was little Asian immigration to the United States. The Immigration Act of 1965 took off the" cap imposed by the 1924 law and allowed for a much greater volume of Asian immigrants. Burmese immigration began after military rule was established in 1962 by ne win. Professors and students fled myanmar when the government shut down the universities, and doctors and other professionals came to the United States to pursue better economic opportunities. The burmese population within the United States remains extremely small.
In may of 1980, ne win offered amnesty to political insurgents, inside or outside burma. U nu returned from his exile to enter a buddhist monastery. Ne win left the presidency in november of 1981, but remained in power until July of 1988. Student and worker protests took place throughout the 1980s, and in September of 1988, general Saw maung and the armed forces took control of the government, imposing martial law and replacing the government with the State law and Order Restoration council, or slorc. The slorc killed thousands of protesters during the suppression of demonstrations. Their repression of religious minorities and military rule continues to draw estate condemnation by the United Nations and human rights organizations such as Amnesty International. Upon protests by the people, the slorc called for multi-party elections in 1990. These elections resulted in a landslide victory for the national league for Democracy (nld lead by u tin u and Daw Aung San suu kyi, the daughter of Aung San, who had been placed under house arrest in 1989.
In the late 1940s, Chinese communists defeated Chinese nationalists and myanmar stopped accepting all foreign aid, including aid from the United States. Nevertheless, by 1958 the country was approaching internal peace, but conflict within the ruling party, the Anti-fascist people's Freedom league (afpfl resulted in u nu, the army chief of staff, inviting General ne win to take over the premiership. Ne win stabilized the country's security and military and won the first general elections, which took place in February of 1960. In 1962, ne win led a coup d'etat and arrested several government officials including u nu, claiming he wanted to keep the state together. He suspended the 1947 constitution and placed the country under the rule of a revolutionary council with the purpose of making Burma a socialist state. He nationalized much of the country's industry and commerce, but because the investment was in industry rather than in agriculture, the economy failed. U nu went into exile in India in 1969. With representatives from a committee made legs up of people from Burma's several ethnic groups, ne win drafted a new constitution in 1971. This writings was ratified in December of 1973 and elections were held in early 1974, and ne win was elected president.
In 1939, when World War ii broke out, burmese leaders did not immediately support the British. A warrant was issued for the arrest of Aung San, who escaped to japan. The japanese offered help to secure burmese independence and Aung San helped form the burma Independence Army in 1941. However, the japanese occupied Burma by the end of 1942, and the japanese army ruled Burma until Aung San and the re-named Burma national Army joined the British and defeated the japanese in may of 1945. After the war, the British military administration was withdrawn, and Burma and Britain began discussing a transfer of power to burmese officials. The British agreed to burma's independence in January, 1947 and a constitution was approved on January 4, 1948. Burma's first government was a parliamentary system. However, the country was riddled with strife and the communists were the first group to rebel.
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In 1531, the ruler Tabinshwehti brought the kingdom to toungoo and was able to conquer both the Shan peoples in the north and the mon in the south. Seeking to capitalize on renewed interest in coastal trade, tabinshwehti moved the capital to the port city of Pegu. This precipitated rivalries that split myanmar once again. After several decades of unrest, the kingdom of ava was resurrected in the sixteenth century, and myanmar was reunited by 1613. Myanmar gained power and territory during the next 200 years, conquering several armies and repelling four attacks from the Chinese between 17The first Anglo-burmese war was fought from, provoked by myanmar as they met the British in India. Myanmar lost both the war and consequently the territories of Assam, manipur, Arakan and Tenasserim. A second Anglo-burmese war in 1852 was instigated by the British and once again resulted in the British gaining territory in myanmar.
Finally, in 1885, Britain declared war for the final time and gained control of myanmar, which became a province of India and thus a british colony. The British eliminated the monarchy and reduced the power of the church by declaring a separation of church and state. The buddhists had always been supported essays by the monarchy in the tradition of maintaining the s angha (the religious community ) ; the new arrangement weakened the church and the education system, which had been the role of the sangha. While the British improved the transportation systems and encouraged the production of rice, rubies, oil and timber, these industries had little impact on the people of Burma, who remained largely poor. The burmese began to develop a nationalist outlook in the early 1900s, and in the late 1930s the burmese peasants rebelled, fighting British and Indian troops for two years. Aung San became a leading force in the nationalist movement in 1936, and in 1937 the British separated Burma and India and granted Burma its own constitution.
The name of its capital, rangoon, is an English corruption of the burmese name, yangon, meaning "End of Dangers given by king Alaungpaya in 1755. Myanmar's population is divided primarily into seven separate administrative states, in addition to the burmans: the Chins, the kachins, the karens, the kayahs, the mons, the Arakenese and the Shans. There are more than 125 separate ethnic groups represented by the burmese. An accurate count of its population has not been taken in years, but in 1996 its population was estimated.5 million. About 68 percent of its estimated population are burmans. The official language is Burmese.
History, myanmar's coastal areas and river valleys have been inhabited since prehistoric times and as early as the ninth century. D., city-kingdoms were being formed by people known as the pyu. Northern myanmar became popular as part of a trade route between China and India. The mon and Pagan peoples established large cities and gained power and, in 1044, the king Anawrahta took up residence in Pagan and began the first unification of myanmar. By the mid-eleventh century, the core of modern myanmar had been formed. The pagan state represented myanmar's classical age, during which government, art, and religion flourished. Temples were built and scholars studied Theravada buddhism. This age ended in the late thirteenth century and in the early fourteenth century, ava became the seat of power. The ava period has been noted as a great period of learning and literature.
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They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. (Article 1 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights). Links, information about the sinhala alphabet and language m ml m Sinhala dates lessons and courses p sinhala phrases p? Unicodeyes ml m ml Sinhala and Tamil word and letter puzzles p? ToysCat5 The south Asian Literary recordings Project - sinhalese authors reading extracts from their work: ml Online sinhala dictionaries nhaladictionary. Org ml px ml Online sinhala radio m m Online news in Sinhala m m/Sinhala/ Free sinhala fonts and software ml /free_sinhala_fonts/ ml /fonts/ Convert romanized Sinhala to the sinhala alphabet m/ More sinhala links Indo-Aryan languages Awadhi, assamese, bengali, bhojpuri, chakma, dhivehi, domari, fiji. Overview, burma, known as myanmar since 1989, is approximately 261,220 square miles. It is bordered on the north by China, on the west by the bay of Bengal, India and Bangladesh, on the east by Thailand and China, and on the south by the Indian Ocean and Thailand. A tropical climate, it experiences monsoon rains for six months of the year (from may to October a cool season (from October through February and a hot season (from February through may).
Numerals, these numerals are no longer used in written Sinhala, instead the western-style numerals are used. Spreadsheet of the sinhala alphabet (Excel, 56K sample text in Sinhala, transliteration. Siyalu manuṣyayō nidahasva upata labā æta. Garutvayen hā ayitivāsikam samāna veti. Yukti ayukti piḷibanda hængīmen hā hṛda sākṣiyen yut ovun, ovunovunṭa sæḷakiya yuttē sahōdaratvaya piḷibanda hængīmeni. Hear a recording of this text by Ajit Alles ( ). Translation, all human beings are born free and legal equal in dignity and rights.
combine the stop and the homorganic nasal. Conjunct symbols are used only when writing Sanskrit or Pali with the sinhala alphabet. A subset of the letters, known. Eḷu hōḷdiya, was used to write classical Sinhala (. Eḷu ) - shown in blue below. Many extra letters were added to write sanskrit and Pali loanwords. Vowels, vowel diacritics with ka, consonants, conjunct consonants.
Writing system : Sinhala alphabets, status : official and national language in Sri lanka. Sinhala is also known as Sinhalese or Singhala - the latter version is closer to the pronunciation native name. The native name of the language is (Siṃhāla which comes from Sanskrit and could be translated as "lion-seizer "lion-killer" thesis or "lion blood which refer to the legendary founder of the sinhala people, prince vijaya, a descendant of Sinhabahu/Sīhabāhu lion-arms the son of a princess. Sinhala alphabet, the sinhala alphabet, a descendent of the. Brahmi script, started to appear in Prakrit inscriptions during the 3rd and 2nd centuries. Both the alphabet and the language have changed considerably since then. The earliest surviving literature in Sinhala dates from the 9th century. The sinhala alphabet is also used to write pali and Sanskrit in Sri lanka. Notable features, type of writing system: syllabic alphabet.
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An alphabetical index of all the alphabets and writing systems featured on this site (not including constructed scripts ). Adlam, ahom, akkadian Cuneiform, ancient Berber, ancient Egyptian (Demotic), ancient Egyptian (Hieratic), ancient Egyptian (Hieroglyphs), archaic Latin, arabic, armenian, avestan, avoiuli top, badaga, bagatha, balinese, bamum, bassa (Vah), batak, baybayin (Tagalog), beitha kukju, bengali, benjamin Franklin's Phonetic Alphabet, bilang-bilang, bima, blackfoot, blissymbolics, borama / Gadabuursi. Get your Translations Spoken With voice Translator If you like this site and find it useful, you can support it by making a donation, or by contributing in biography other ways. Omniglot is how I make my living. Sinhala is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by about 16 million Sinhalese people in Sri lanka. It also used as a second language by another 3 million people belonging to other ethnic groups in Sri lanka, where it is one of the official and national languages, along with Tamil. There are also considerable numbers of Sinhala speakers in Singapore, thailand, canada and the United Arab Emirates. Sinhala at a glance, native name : (Siṃhāla) siŋɦələ, linguistic affliation : Indo-european; Indo-Iranian; Indo-Aryan; southern Indo-Aryan; Insular Indo-Aryan. Number of speakers :.17 million, spoken in : Sri lanka, first written : 9th century.